Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Marsilea villosa
(Marsileaceae)

HEAR home  >  species info  >  plants  >  Marsilea villosa (Marsileaceae)
(hints)
Featured items Species description or overview Taxonomy & nomenclature Federal endangered/threatened status Cultivation & propagation
Images Distribution Where to see this species Books Abstracts

Let us know if you have suggestions for additional references to add to this page.
Marsilea villosa is a small fern (to about 6" tall) that grows in small clusters with foliage resembling four-leaf clovers.  Marsilea villosa is native to the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Niihau (endemic). 

Featured items

Marsilea villosa: Wikipedia information
Ihi ihi or villous waterclover image, taxonomy, and brief description are available on Wikipedia.


Species description or overview

Marsilea villosa: Wikipedia information
Ihi ihi or villous waterclover image, taxonomy, and brief description are available on Wikipedia.

USFWS species report on Marsilea villosa
The is available online. A general description of the organism and information about its distribution in the U.S. (including territories and national wildlife refuges) is presented by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, along with links to other documentation regarding federal (endangered/threatened) status, recovery information, and additional resources.

Marsilea villosa information from Native Plants Hawaii
Information about Marsilea villosa--including details regarding plant, flower, and leaf characteristics; pests and diseases; growth requirements; and environment--is provided by Native Plants Hawaii.

Marsilea villosa profile from the Center for Plant Conservation
Marsilea villosa ecology, distribution, protection status, threats, and references are provided by the Center for Plant Conservation.


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Marsilea villosa
Nomenclatural information about Marsilea villosa is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Marsilea villosa information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Marsilea villosa--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Marsilea villosa information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Marsilea villosa, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Marsilea villosa
Nomenclatural information about Marsilea villosa is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Federal endangered/threatened status

USFWS species report on Marsilea villosa
The is available online. A general description of the organism and information about its distribution in the U.S. (including territories and national wildlife refuges) is presented by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, along with links to other documentation regarding federal (endangered/threatened) status, recovery information, and additional resources.

Marsilea villosa species profile from USFWS
A species profile for Marsilea villosa is provided by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, including links to information regarding the federal endangered/threatened status of this species.


Cultivation & propagation

Marsilea villosa information from Native Plants Hawaii
Information about Marsilea villosa--including details regarding plant, flower, and leaf characteristics; pests and diseases; growth requirements; and environment--is provided by Native Plants Hawaii.

In the Garden: 4-leaf clover has impostor
Ihi ihilauakea (Marselia villosa), a delicate fern resembling the four-leaf clover, is the topic of this Rick Barboza column (Honolulu Star-Bulletin Features, 3/18/2005).

In the Garden: Endangered fern mistaken for clover
Ihi ihilauakea (Marselia villosa), which shares its name with the crater near Hanauma Bay where this fern is found, is the topic of this Rick Barboza column (Honolulu Star-Bulletin Features, 3/16/2007).


Images

Images of Marsilea villosa (Marsileaceae) (ihiihi)
Links to high-resolution free images of Marsilea villosa (Marsileaceae) (ihiihi) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Marsilea villosa information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Marsilea villosa in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Marsilea villosa images from Native Plants Hawaii
Images of Marsilea villosa are provided on the Native Plants Hawaii website.

Marsilea villosa images
Marsilea villosa sporocarps and leaf are shown in these images.


Distribution

Marsilea villosa information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Marsilea villosa in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Marsilea villosa information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Marsilea villosa--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.


Where to see this species

Ihiihilauakea (Marsilea villosa) habitat, Koko Head, Oahu
Find the ihiihilauakea in this gigapan image of the weed overgrown habitat of one of only two Oahu populations of the endangered endemic fern.


Books

Hawaii's ferns and fern allies
Palmer, Daniel D. 2003. Hawaii's ferns and fern allies. Contribuition no. 2002-010 to the Hawaii Biological Survey. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 324 pp. ISBN: 0-8248-2522-5.


Abstracts

Restoration genetics of the endangered fern Marsilea villosa: Variation among populations on two Hawaiian islands
At least moderate levels of interpopulational and interisland genetic variation were found in ihi ihi populations (oral presentation, Botany and Mycology 2009 meeting).

Population dynamics of Marsilea villosa (Marsileaceae) on Oahu, Hawaii
Invasion of alien grasses may be contributing to the dramatic decline of Marsilea villosa at Ihiihilauakea Crater (Pacific Science, 2006).


PDF icon Some documents posted on the HEAR website are in Adobe Acrobat PDF format. If your computer is not already set up to read these files, you can download the FREE Adobe Acrobat reader. You can set up most web browsers to automatically invoke this reader (as a "helper application" or "add-in") upon encountering documents of this type (refer to your browser's documentation for how to do this). download Acrobat reader


The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) project was historically funded by the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) through PIERC (USGS) with support from HCSU (UH Hilo). More details are available online. Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII)

species lists  ]    [  plants  ]    [  HEAR home  ]

Comments?  Questions?  Send e-mail to: webmaster@hear.org

The content of this page is based on information last generated on 22 March 2017 by PT. The template for this page was created on 15 March 2004 by EMS, and was last updated on 20 February 2006 by PT. Valid HTML 4.01!