Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Eleutherodactylus coqui
(Amphibians-Frogs)

coqui (frog)

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Featured items Species description or overview Taxonomy & nomenclature Identification Pest alerts Impacts
Dispersal and pathways Control methods Management plans Biocontrol (potential for use as) Legislation/regulation Images
Distribution Case studies Books In the news Full-text articles Abstracts
Presentations Experts Other resources      

HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING

A message from Dr. David Duffy, Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (PCSU), University of Hawaii (posted 05 November 2012):

Because of a lack of funds, HEAR (www.hear.org) may close as soon as December 15, although there may be enough funds to extend it until February 15. This will mean several things. The web site will be placed on a new server although it is not clear who will pay for the server or for transitioning the site. HEAR data will not be updated. The Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (http://www.hear.org/pier/abtproj.htm) site will also become frozen, as will numerous books, reports and papers (http://www.hear.org/). As software evolves we will likely lose the ability to access the data. The various list servers will need new owners, otherwise moderated lists will cease to function altogether, while other lists will not be able to add or delete members. The photo collection (http://www.hear.org/starr/images/?o=plants) will remain accessible, but only through a third party site that will charge for access.

I should point out that we have already lost the original homes of both the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) and Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) although they have found temporary refuges. Together with HEAR, they represent the corporate memory both here in Hawaii and across the Pacific of efforts to sustain our natural ecosystems and agriculture against problems caused by species alien to the islands. HEAR also serves as the glue that holds the community together, providing information and facilitating communication. I just hope hindsight is kind to this decision.

PLEASE SEND YOUR COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS TO webmaster@hear.org

Let us know if you have suggestions for additional references to add to this page.

The coqui (Eleutherodactylus coqui) is a small, nocturnal (night-active) frog about the size of a quarter, up to two inches in length. It is usually brown or gray-brown, and may have a lighter stripe down its back. The male's mating call is a two-note, high-pitched "ko-KEE." 

Featured items

Herpetological Review article: "Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Frogs native to the Caribbean, Eleutherodactylus coqui, E. martinicensis, and E. planirostris, are now established in Hawaii (1999).


Species description or overview

Coqui frog information
Frequently asked questions regarding the coqui frog in Hawaii are answered on this page from the Hawaii Department of Agriculture.

Eleutherodactylus coqui fact sheet
This USGS fact sheet on the coqui frog includes information on taxonomy, identification, range, biology, and impacts.

Eleutherodactylus coqui information
Coqui ecology, habitat, dispersal, and management are from The Global Invasive Species Database.

Eleutherodactylus coqui description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Eleutherodactylus coqui as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Eleutherodactylus coqui ecology from Global Invasive Species Database
Information on the coqui including description, related species, habitat, impacts, uses, range, management, nutrition, reproduction, and life cycle are compiled in the Global Invasive Species Database.

The coqui in Puerto Rico
A description of Eleutherodactylus coqui in its native range and links to more information are available at this site promoting Puerto Rico.

Coqui frog control for homeowners View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Finding and controlling coqui frogs are covered in this printable brochure for Hawaii residents.


Taxonomy & nomenclature

Eleutherodactylus coqui information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Eleutherodactylus coqui, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.


Identification

Differences between greenhouse frog and coqui frog (CTAHR)
An illustrated guide to differences between greenhouse frog and coqui frog is provided by CTAHR (University of Hawaii).

Greenhouse frog or coqui?
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Differences between greenhouse frog and coqui frog (CTAHR) (PDF/poster version) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Two Eleutherodactylus species found in Hawaii differ in physical characteristics, sound, and habitat.

Diversity of coqui frog morphology (CTAHR)
Images illustrating the diversity of coqui frog morphology (appearance) are presented by CTAHR (University of Hawaii).


Pest alerts

Pest Alert: Stop the spread of Caribbean frogs View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Pest Alert poster to educate the public and prevent further spread of Caribbean frogs in Hawaii.

Stop the spread of coqui in Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Coqui description and hotline numbers are on this pest alert poster from the Hawaii Department of Agriculture.

HEAR Eleutherodactylus spp. frog pest alert View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Greenhouse and coqui frogs are shown in the "STOP the spread of Caribbean frogs!" pest alert from 2000.

A letter to the horticulture industry regarding coqui View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Help combatting the spread of coqui frogs is requested by the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources (6/28/2000).

Got Frogs? What you can do (about coqui in Hawaii) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"Got frogs? What you can do" is a report from the Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC) regarding what you can do to prevent, report, and control non-native coqui frogs in Hawaii.

Homeowner's Guide to Stopping the Spread of Coqui Frogs on Maui View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)


Impacts

"We must not let tiny shrieking monsters destroy Hawaii" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 07JAN2007)
A 3-year Big Island study is planned to look at coqui habitat (11 March 2005, Honolulu Star-Bulletin).

Invasive predators: A synthesis of the past, present, and future View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Effects of various invasive predators on prey populations are described in a synthesis from USDA APHIS.

Potential consequences of the coqui frog invasion in Hawaii
The abstract for the article "Potential consequences of the coqui frog invasion in Hawaii" (Diversity & Distributions, Volume 11, Issue 5, Page 427, September 2005) is available online.

"Hawaiian officials fight the spread of invasive, noisy frogs" (summary box from Fox23 News)
Noisy coqui frogs are cited as potentially affecting real estate values in Hawaii, and that government officials have "begun an aggressive extermination campaign to control the coqui population" (AP, as reported by Fox23 News 15 July 2005).

Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This article documents the introduction of Caribbean frogs (Eleutherodactylus spp.) to Hawaii, and includes an extensive list of references regarding these frogs.

Eleutherodactylus coqui impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Eleutherodactylus coqui as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

An invasive frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, increases new leaf production and leaf litter decomposition rates through nutrient cycling in Hawaii (abstract)
Coqui in Hawaii has the potential to reduce endemic invertebrates and increase nutrient cycling rates, which may confer a competitive advantage to invasive plants in an ecosystem where native species have evolved in nutrient-poor conditions (Biological Invasions, 2007).


Dispersal and pathways

Coqui genetic study
Phylogenetic study of Eleutherodactylus coqui (Anura: Leptodactylidae) reveals deep genetic fragmentation in Puerto Rico and pinpoints origins of Hawaiian populations (Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2007, purchase required).

Using pathway analysis to inform prevention strategies for alien reptiles and amphibians View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Analyses of 5,700 introductions of alien reptiles and amphibians worldwide provided pathway information necessary for design of informed prevention programs (F. Krauss, Bishop Museum, Managing Vertebrate Invasive Species: Proceedings of an International Symposium, 2007).


Control methods

Heat being used to kill coqui frog
"A local [ed.: Waimanalo, Hawaii] nursery is using heat to kill the pesky coqui frog in potted plants. In a recent test done at Leilani Nursery, nine out of ten frogs died after being exposed to temperatures of more than 113 degrees for five minutes." (AP, as reported by KPUA.net 30 January 2006)

(Hawaii) Residents reminded about proper use of hydrated lime to control coqui frogs
"The Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA) reminds residents, particularly on the Big Island, that there are specific directions that must be followed when using hydrated lime to control coqui frog infestations."

Lime OK'd for use against coqui frogs
"The Green Monster: City, state and federal officials coordinate efforts to remove a weed covering the surface of Lake Wilson" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, February 19, 2003).

Hawaii's coqui frog management, research and education plan View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Hawaii Invasive Species Council's plan for management of the coqui frog is specific to each island (draft, 2007, 59 p).

Pesticide (ranacide) label for caffeine View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
online

Label instructions for use of calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime) to control coqui and greenhouse frogs in Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The Hawaii Department of Agriculture provides online label instructions for use of calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime) to control coqui and greenhouse frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui and Eleutherodactylus planirostris) in outdoor ornamental plants in nurseries and residential areas, parks, hotels, resorts, forest habitats, and natural areas in Hawaii. Ash Grove Kemilime may be used in the State of Hawaii (Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Lanai, Molokai and the Island of Hawaii) to control the coqui and greenhouse frogs in outdoor ornamental plants in nurseries and residential areas, parks, hotels and resorts, forest habitats, and natural areas from April 26, 2005 through April 26, 2008 under a Quarantine Exemption granted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the provisions of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as Amended.

Infection of an invasive frog Eleutherodactylus coqui by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Hawaii
Coqui frogs from Hawaii were tested for infection by B. dendrobatidis and 2.4% were found to be infected (abstract, 2005).

Erythrina gall wasp View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"One of the latest invaders reported on April 19, 2005 is the Erythrina Gall Wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae. As its name implies, it attacks Erythrina also known as Wiliwili or the Indian Coral Trees." Erythrina Gall Wasp.

Pipe traps can control frogs without chemicals (Honolulu Star-Bulletin 28 April 2005)
The Honolulu Star-Bulletin reports that "pipe traps can control [coqui] frogs without chemicals" (28 April 2005).

Caffeine no longer authorized for control of coqui
The reasons that caffeine is no longer being used or studied as a means of controlling coqui in Hawaii are outlined on this page.

Coqui frogs controlled by citric acid
Test results on the efficacy of citric acid to control coqui frogs in Hawaii are presented.

Reducing habitat of coqui frogs by clearing Lava Tree State Monument
An experimental plot in the state park was cleared of all non-native plants in an effort to control the coqui infestation.

Genetic control of coqui frogs
Links to information on genetically based control strategies for the coqui frog are available on this page.

Hot water to control coqui in potted plants
Hot water treatments of potted plants in commercial nurseries can be used to control the spread of coqui frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui).

Effectiveness of pyrethrin to control coqui frogs
Pyrethrin (pyrenone) sprayed on coqui frog (Eleutherodactylus coqui) eggs is not an effective control.

Trapping coqui frogs
Various traps for the coqui frog are described and tested by the University of Hawaii.

Effectiveness of vapor heat (University of Hawaii CTAHR)
Hot vapor treatments of commercial potted plants are lethal to coqui, but some plants suffer damage from the treatment. Photos of vapor effects on sensitive plants are shown.

Citric acid pesticide label View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The label for use of citric acid anhydrous for control of caribbean tree frogs includes directions for use and toxicity to plants.

Coqui Frog: Control for Homeowners View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Coqui Frog: Control for Homeowners

Hawaii's coqui frog management, research and education plan
"Hawaii's coqui frog management, research and education plan," co-authored by a consortium of stakeholders, is available online.

Homeowner's Guide to Stopping the Spread of Coqui Frogs on Maui View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Eleutherodactylus coqui management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Eleutherodactylus coqui as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Slugging it out with caffeine
A researcher in Hilo found that caffeine is lethal to slugs. This discovery emerged from the use of caffeine to control coqui frogs in Hawaii (Science News).


Management plans

Hawaii's coqui frog management, research and education plan
"Hawaii's coqui frog management, research and education plan," co-authored by a consortium of stakeholders, is available online.


Biocontrol (potential for use as)

Biological control of coqui frogs
Potential biological controls for the coqui frog in Hawaii, including the chytrid fungus, internal parasites and chickens, are briefly reviewed.


Legislation/regulation

Lime application for frog control - survey View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This survey request from the Hawaii Department of Agriculture aims to monitor the application of hydrated lime to control coqui and greenhouse frogs, in accordance with EPA regulations (2006).


Images

Diversity of coqui frog morphology (CTAHR)
Images illustrating the diversity of coqui frog morphology (appearance) are presented by CTAHR (University of Hawaii).

Image and multimedia gallery about coqui frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui) (from CTAHR)
An image and multimedia gallery about coqui frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui) is provided by CTAHR (University of Hawaii).

Greenhouse frog or coqui?
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Eleutherodactylus coqui - coqui frog (Leptodactydlidae - Anura)
Images, web sites, news articles, blog entries, videos, and books are compiled by google on this Reptiles and Amphibians of Hawaii site.


Distribution

Herpetological Review article: "Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Frogs native to the Caribbean, Eleutherodactylus coqui, E. martinicensis, and E. planirostris, are now established in Hawaii (1999).

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy (2000) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The status of invasive plants, vertebrates, arthropods, molluscs, and crustaceans, and options for a regional invasive species strategy for the South Pacific are presented in this series of articles from the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 2000.

Predicting the distribution potential of an invasive frog using remotely sensed data in Hawaii
Eleutherodactylus coqui (commonly known as the coqui) is a frog species native to Puerto Rico and non-native in Hawaii. Despite its ecological and economic impacts, its potential range in Hawaii is unknown, making control and management efforts difficult. Here, we predicted the distribution potential of the coqui on the island of Hawaii. (excerpted from the abstract)

Monitoring population densities of coqui frogs
Population densities of coqui frogs at the Lava Tree State Monument on the Big Island will be monitored by the University of Hawaii.

Coqui (Eleutherodactylus coqui) overview from the Hawaii Invasive Species Council (HISC).
Description, impacts, images, and distribution in Hawaii of coqui frog are from HISC's high-profile invasive pests site.

KISC's coqui frog eradication project update
Coqui control efforts are described in Kauai Invasive Species Committee's (KISC) powerpoint progress report (10/16/2008).

Eleutherodactylus coqui worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Eleutherodactylus coqui is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Case studies

Coqui news from the Kauai Invasive Species Committee (KISC)
The Kauai Invasive Species Committee's (KISC) Coqui News is a weekly update on coqui frog (Eleutherodactylus coqui) eradication and control efforts on the island of Kauai.


Books

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Alien reptiles and amphibians: a scientific compendium and analysis
Kraus, Fred. 2009. Alien reptiles and amphibians: a scientific compendium and analysis. Springer. 563 pp. illus.


In the news

Coqui news from the Kauai Invasive Species Committee (KISC)
The Kauai Invasive Species Committee's (KISC) Coqui News is a weekly update on coqui frog (Eleutherodactylus coqui) eradication and control efforts on the island of Kauai.

End is near for coqui control efforts
Hawaii County will auction off sprayers used to control coqui frogs as it ends programs to control the frog invasion (Big Island Weekly, 10/7/2009).

Tackling the invasive species crisis in Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
University of Hawaii College of Tropical Agriculture's strategies to combat various invasive species in Hawaii are reviewed (CTAHR Research News, Feb. 2008).

MISC project: Destroy coqui, 2 December 2007
A portable sprinkler system to spray citric acid will be part of the arsenal combatting coqui in Maliko gulch on Maui (Maui News).

Coqui frog population multiplies
As many as 30,000 coqui frogs per acre infest the East Hawaii region, in what is called a "plague" on the Big Island.

Does frog lunch bug you? (Raising Islands Blog, 24 August 2007)
Bloggist Jan TenBruggencate discusses Karen H. Beard's research the stomach contents of coqui frogs. Beard found ants, amphipods, mites, beetles, flies and other little critters, but sadly, no mosquitos.

Coqui's threat to island goes beyond being a noisy nuisance View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The coqui frog is the topic of the Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC) Kiai Moku Maui News column (1/14/2007).

"We must not let tiny shrieking monsters destroy Hawaii" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 07JAN2007)
A 3-year Big Island study is planned to look at coqui habitat (11 March 2005, Honolulu Star-Bulletin).

Most speakers favor funding to fight coqui frogs (Kauai, 22 November 2006)
"The County Council should fund Kauai Invasive Species Committee's $290,000 request to eradicate the noisy and troublesome coqui frog in Lawai, most speakers told the council yesterday." (The Garden Island [newspaper], 22 November 2006)

Kiai Na Ku Moku O Maui Nui: newsletter of the Maui Invasive Species Committee (Fall 2006) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The Fall 2006 issue of Kiai Na Ku Moku O Maui Nui--the newsletter of the Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC)--contains articles about pampas grass; the National Park Service; the Hawaii state noxious weed list; Mike Ade, MISC's senior field supervisor; Bob Flint and coqui frogs in the Kokomo area; MISC on Lanai; Brahminy blind snakes; the MISC early detection program; and the Maui I Ka Aina award.

Feds chip in to help control coqui
The U.S. Department of Agriculture approved 240 thousand dollars to help control coqui frogs on the Big Island.

Nurseries get frog fight funding
This Honolulu Star-Bulletin article discusses two proposed bills in the Hawaii legislature to work towards eradication of the non-native coqui frog in Hawaii (13 February 2005).

Heat being used to kill coqui frog
"A local [ed.: Waimanalo, Hawaii] nursery is using heat to kill the pesky coqui frog in potted plants. In a recent test done at Leilani Nursery, nine out of ten frogs died after being exposed to temperatures of more than 113 degrees for five minutes." (AP, as reported by KPUA.net 30 January 2006)

Big Island legislators take on coqui fight
"Big Island legislators and Mayor Harry Kim planned to unveil a series of bills today that would fight the infestation of noisy, non-native coqui frogs on the Big Island." (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Vol. 11, Issue 28 - Saturday, Jan. 28, 2006)

Coqui Frog Creating Big Problems for Big Island
The State of Hawaii DLNR/DOFAW urges people not to use Lonicera japonica (Caprifoliaceae) horticulturally.

Invasive species crews eliminating pockets of coqui frogs, 19 October 2005
Maui Invasive Species Committee crew are dedicating their evenings to locating and controlling frogs across Maui (Maui News).

(Hawaii) Residents reminded about proper use of hydrated lime to control coqui frogs
"The Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA) reminds residents, particularly on the Big Island, that there are specific directions that must be followed when using hydrated lime to control coqui frog infestations."

"Hawaiian officials fight the spread of invasive, noisy frogs" (summary box from Fox23 News)
Noisy coqui frogs are cited as potentially affecting real estate values in Hawaii, and that government officials have "begun an aggressive extermination campaign to control the coqui population" (AP, as reported by Fox23 News 15 July 2005).

The costly coqui
The Honolulu Star-Bulletin reports on "The costly coqui: Schofield Barracks deals with the same problem facing the Big Island amid real estate fears" (11 July 2005).

EPA approves hydrated lime in coqui fight, 28 April 2005
The Environmental Protection Agency has approved hydrated lime against coqui as an emergency exemption for a three-year period (Maui News).

Lime OK'd for use against coqui frogs
"The Green Monster: City, state and federal officials coordinate efforts to remove a weed covering the surface of Lake Wilson" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, February 19, 2003).

Pipe traps can control frogs without chemicals (Honolulu Star-Bulletin 28 April 2005)
The Honolulu Star-Bulletin reports that "pipe traps can control [coqui] frogs without chemicals" (28 April 2005).

Conquering the coqui requires funding from the state (Honolulu Star-Bulletin editorial, 14 April 2005)
The Honolulu Star-Bulletin (http://starbulletin.com)

The silence of the frogs, 10 April 2005
Neighborhood action combats coqui in Makawao, Maui (Maui News).

3-year coqui habitat study planned on Big Island
"Lingle pledges help to clear Lake Wilson" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, February 8, 2003).

Two UH-Hilo biologists to study coqui habitat in lower Puna
The State of Hawaii DLNR/DOFAW urges people not to use Olea europaea (Oleaceae) horticulturally.

Bills seek to muffle isle frog
"Group targets weed choking Lake Wilson: Gov. Lingle's support is sought in an effort to rein in the plant" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, February 7, 2003).

$7 million sought to fight coqui frogs (article)
"U.S. Rep. Ed Case is getting involved in the fight to rid Hawaii of noisy coqui frogs, asking the federal government to contribute $7 million to help combat the invasive species", reports the Honolulu Star Bulletin (May 15, 2004).

The L-Bomb (lime as a control agent for coqui frogs)
"Lake Wilson must be saved from alien plant," a letter to the editor of the Honolulu Star-Bulletin (December 21, 2002).

Steam kills Big Island infestation (of coqui frogs)
The Honolulu Star-Bulletin (http://starbulletin.com)

New weapon found to fight coqui
Description of USGS's research on remote sensing coral reefs in Hawaii. Contains links to many other coral reef sites.

Coqui frog colonies spread across Maui
The Honolulu Star-Bulletin presents an article entitled "Coqui frog colonies spread across Maui" (20 January 2004).

Citric acid aids fight against coqui frog
The Honolulu Star-Bulletin (http://starbulletin.com)

Shipments spreading coqui
"The invasive coqui tree frog, that tiny night singer with a big voice and a two-note repertoire, has been expanding from its foothold in the damper areas of the Big Island to the rest of the state, including Oahu."

Honolulu Star-Bulletin Hawaii News
Course material and virtual herbarium for College of Micronesia-FSM SC 250 Botany class.

Tiny, alien frogs making big noise across Hawaii
The coqui frog invasion should be a higher priority for the state, according to this Honolulu Star-Bulletin Editorial (5/18/2001).

Caffeine kills unwanted frogs but EPA worries it may be too potent
A 2% caffeine solution kills 100% of frogs, but may result in "nontarget mortality" (Star Bulletin, 5/16/2001).

"State hopes caffeine concentrate curbs frogs on Big Island"
This Honolulu Advertiser article (17 Feb. 2001) discusses the possibility of caffeine being able to control coqui frogs on the Big Island (Hawaii).

"State must crack down on pests invading Isles"
"State must crack down on pests invading Isles" is an opinion letter by Tom Cannon published in the Honolulu Advertiser, 30 January 2001.

Honolulu Star-Bulletin Editorial
Various editorials on turtles and long line fishing in Hawaiian waters, Puerto Rican frogs are harmless, and stray animals.

Pesky alien species have folks hopping mad
Coqui frogs frustrate and irritate Hawaii residents. This article has links to audio files (Star Bulletin, 6/5/2000).

Many Mauians want to croak little foreign frogs"
"Many Mauians want to croak little foreign frogs" is an article about coqui frogs on Maui; the article was presented in Pacific Business News in their 27 November 1998 print version.


Full-text articles

Population Densities of the Coqui, Eleutherodactylus coqui (Anura: Leptodactylidae) in Newly Invaded Hawaii and in Native Puerto Rico
"Eleutherodactylus coqui was accidentally introduced to east Hawaii Island in the late 1980s and has since become established as scattered populations across the island. Mark-recapture study plots indicate that population size remains small for the first year after initial colonization. Plots in heavily forested areas where the Coqui has become well-established yield population estimates of frog density three times the estimates reported from native populations in Puerto Rico." [from abstract]

Infection of Eleutherodactylus coqui by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Researchers report the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was found in introduced Eleutherodactylus coqui populations in Hawaii, raising questions about the fungus' role as a potential biocontrol agent.

Bibliographic resources about coqui frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui) in Hawaii
Bibliographic resources about coqui frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui) in Hawaii are presented by CTAHR (University of Hawaii).

Human-mediated escalation of the invasion of coqui frogs in Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The many misguided decisions that allowed the invasion of coqui frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui) in Hawaii to escalate beyond control are reviewed in this article published in Biological Invasions in 2002.

Hawaii's coqui frog management, research and education plan View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Hawaii Invasive Species Council's plan for management of the coqui frog is specific to each island (draft, 2007, 59 p).

Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This article documents the introduction of Caribbean frogs (Eleutherodactylus spp.) to Hawaii, and includes an extensive list of references regarding these frogs.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy
South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP). Sherley, Greg (ed.) . 2000. Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. Apia, Samoa: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. ISBN: 982-04-0214-X.

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

An invasive frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, increases new leaf production and leaf litter decomposition rates through nutrient cycling in Hawaii
Sin, Hans, Karen H. Beard, and William C. Pitt. 2008. An invasive frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, increases new leaf production and leaf litter decomposition rates through nutrient cycling in Hawaii. Biological Invasions 10:3 (March 2008).

An updated, indexed bibliography of the herpetofauna of Florida
Enge, Kevin M. 2002. An updated, indexed bibliography of the herpetofauna of Florida. Technical report no. 19.

Herpetological inventory in West Hawaii National Parks: Puuhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park, Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Puukohola Heiau National Historic Site
Bazzano, Jason. 2007. Herpetological inventory in West Hawaii National Parks: Puuhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park, Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Puukohola Heiau National Historic Site. Technical Report 141. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Honolulu. 30 pp. illus.

Human-mediated escalation of a formerly eradicable problem: the invasion of Caribbean frogs in the Hawaiian Islands
Kraus, Fred and Earl W. Campbell III. 2002. Human-mediated escalation of a formerly eradicable problem: the invasion of Caribbean frogs in the Hawaiian Islands. Biological Invasions 4: 327-332.

Slugging it out with caffeine
A researcher in Hilo found that caffeine is lethal to slugs. This discovery emerged from the use of caffeine to control coqui frogs in Hawaii (Science News).


Abstracts

Predicting the distribution potential of an invasive frog using remotely sensed data in Hawaii
Eleutherodactylus coqui (commonly known as the coqui) is a frog species native to Puerto Rico and non-native in Hawaii. Despite its ecological and economic impacts, its potential range in Hawaii is unknown, making control and management efforts difficult. Here, we predicted the distribution potential of the coqui on the island of Hawaii. (excerpted from the abstract)

An invasive frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, increases new leaf production and leaf litter decomposition rates through nutrient cycling in Hawaii (abstract)
Coqui in Hawaii has the potential to reduce endemic invertebrates and increase nutrient cycling rates, which may confer a competitive advantage to invasive plants in an ecosystem where native species have evolved in nutrient-poor conditions (Biological Invasions, 2007).


Presentations

KISC's coqui frog eradication project update
Coqui control efforts are described in Kauai Invasive Species Committee's (KISC) powerpoint progress report (10/16/2008).


Experts

Eleutherodactylus coqui contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Eleutherodactylus coqui as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Other resources

COQUI-L listserv: coqui management in Hawaii
The purpose of this list is to provide a public forum for discussion of statewide efforts being made to understand and control coqui frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui) in Hawaii. The primary objective of this list is to develop a cooperative network through which coqui concerned groups and individuals may be more effective. Through an understanding of historic and present efforts in Hawaii and elsewhere it is our hope to facilitate more efficient coqui control campaigns in the future.

Frog status update for Hawaii (Eleutherodactylus species) as of 16 March 2001 View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This document contains information regarding the current known distribution of these frogs in Hawaii, and of the development of control methods as of March 2001.

Additional (external) links about coqui frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui) from CTAHR
Additional (external) links about coqui frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui) are provided by CTAHR (University of Hawaii).

Three Mountain Alliance Management Plan, December 31, 2007 View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The Three Mountain Alliance provides watershed protection and management to over one million acres across Mauna Loa, Kilauea, and Hualalai on Hawaii Island. This plan identifies management goals (pdf).

Coqui frog information
Frequently asked questions regarding the coqui frog in Hawaii are answered on this page from the Hawaii Department of Agriculture.

UH/CTAHR "Control of coqui frogs in Hawaii" page
"The purpose of this Web site is to provide a comprehensive resource for biological and control aspects of the coqui frog invasion in Hawaii. Here you will find original research summaries, tips for homeowners, photos, and links to other Web sites and articles."

Hawaii contacts for reporting/questions about coqui frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui)
Hawaii contact information for reporting/questions about coqui frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui) is provided by CTAHR (University of Hawaii).

Coqui frog working group
This CTAHR page describes the Coqui Frog Working Group and contains links to the minutes of the meetings of that group.

Other resources RE: coqui frogs (Eleutherodacylus coqui) from CTAHR
Supplemental online resources RE: coqui frogs (Eleutherodacylus coqui) are provided by CTAHR (University of Hawaii).

Coqui articles in Environment Hawaii.org website
This real-time search for articles on the coqui frog in Environment Hawaii's archives provides the most up-to-date information available from this source.

Report a coqui!
This page provides information about where to submit a new sighting of coqui frogs in Hawaii.

Pesticide forms for using hydrated lime for coqui and greenhouse frog control in Hawaii
Pesticide forms for and information about using hydrated lime for coqui and greenhouse frog control in Hawaii are presented online by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture, including: Label instructions for use of calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime); applicator authorization form; sales recordkeeping form; application for license of pesticides; application for license renewal of pesticides; electronic submissions information; and HDOA contact information.

Alien Caribbean Frogs in Hawaii
Information about alien Caribbean frogs in Hawaii is presented by the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Pesticide (ranacide) label for caffeine View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
online

Caribbean frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui and Eleutherodactylus planirostris) - OISC target species
Potential impacts of Caribbean frogs on Oahu are described.

Eleutherodactylus coqui references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Eleutherodactylus coqui as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) is currently funded by grants from the Hau'oli Mau Loa Foundation and the U.S. Forest Service with support from PCSU (UH Manoa). Historically, HEAR has also received funding and/or support from the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), PIERC (USGS), the USFWS, HCSU (UH Hilo), and HALE (NPS).

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