Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Cynodon dactylon
(Poaceae)

Australian couch, Bahama grass, Bermuda grass, Indian doab, balama grass, couch grass, devil's grass, devilgrass, giant Bermuda grass, grama

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Species description or overview Taxonomy & nomenclature Impacts Risk assessments Control methods Images
Distribution Where to see this species Books Full-text articles Experts Other resources

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Species description or overview

Cynodon dactylon information from PIER
Information on Cynodon dactylon as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).

Cynodon dactylon description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Cynodon dactylon as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Cynodon dactylon
Nomenclatural information about Cynodon dactylon is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Cynodon dactylon information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Cynodon dactylon--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Cynodon dactylon information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Cynodon dactylon, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Cynodon dactylon
Nomenclatural information about Cynodon dactylon is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Impacts

Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae): species information from GCW
Information on Cynodon dactylon as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Cynodon dactylon impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Cynodon dactylon as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Risk assessments

Cynodon dactylon weed risk assessment for Hawaii-Pacific
Results of a weed risk assessment for Cynodon dactylon for the Hawaii-Pacific region are presented by the Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment team.


Control methods

Cynodon dactylon management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Cynodon dactylon as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Images

Images of Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae) (Bermuda grass)
Links to high-resolution free images of Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae) (Bermuda grass) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Cynodon dactylon information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Cynodon dactylon in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Cynodon dactylon images from PIER
Images of Cynodon dactylon provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Distribution

Cynodon dactylon information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Cynodon dactylon in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Cynodon dactylon information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Cynodon dactylon--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Cynodon dactylon worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Cynodon dactylon is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Where to see this species

A nature walk to Kaena Point
Arrigoni, Edward. 1978. A nature walk to Kaena Point. Honolulu: Topgallant Publishing Co., Ltd. ISBN: 0-914916-30-0.

Kahoolawe (Kanaloa): natural areas of Hawaii
Forest and Kim Starr provide information about the island of Kahoolawe as a natural area in Hawaii. Links to additional resources are provided, as well as links to images of plant species found on Kahoolawe.

Kaena Point natural area reserve ecosystem restoration project
The resources of Kaena, and threats to the wildlife, are depicted on this US Fish and Wildlife site.


Books

Weed handbook of Western Polynesia
Whistler, W. Arthur. 1983. Weed handbook of Western Polynesia. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft f#r Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. ISBN: 3-88085-227-8.

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Weeds of the West
Whitson, Tom D., Larry C. Burrill, Steven A. Dewey, David W. Cudney, B.E. Nelson, Richard D. Lee, and Robert Parker. Whitson, Tom D. (ed.) . 2001. Weeds of the West. 9th ed. Laramie: University of Wyoming. ISBN: 0-941570-13-4.

A nature walk to Kaena Point
Arrigoni, Edward. 1978. A nature walk to Kaena Point. Honolulu: Topgallant Publishing Co., Ltd. ISBN: 0-914916-30-0.

Hawaii's butterflies & moths: an identification guide to easily observed species
Jamieson, Dean and Jim Denny. 2001. Hawaii's butterflies & moths: an identification guide to easily observed species. A Hawaii Biological Survey Handbook. Mutual Publishing.

Grasses of the Hawaiian ranges (book)
A complete list of all species covered in Grasses of the Hawaiian ranges (Whitney, Hosaka, and Ripperton, 1939) is presented, along with a complete bibliographic citation. This book "describes and illustrates 103 of the most important grasses in Hawaii.... There are many grasses, either recently introduced or slow to become acclimatized, that have not yet established themselves on the ranges; these are not here included. Species that are found outside the general range areas, as in summit bogs, forest reserves, and national parks, are also omitted. Keys to the tribes and genera [are also included." ([adapted] from the book's introduction)


Full-text articles

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Botanical inventory of Kure Atoll
Starr, Forest, Kim Martz, and Lloyd Loope. 2001. Botanical inventory of Kure Atoll. Prepared for Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife (Honolulu). 47 pp. illus.

Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants on Midway Atoll, Hawaii.
Starr, F., K. Starr, and Loope L. 2006. Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants on Midway Atoll, Hawaii. An addendum to the 1999 Botanical Survey of Midway Atoll.

Botanical survey of Midway Atoll
Starr, F. and K. Martz. 1999. Botanical survey of Midway Atoll. In: 1995-1999 Baseline Surveys for Alien Species in Marine and Terrestrial Habitats on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii.

A botanical survey of Pearl & Hermes Atoll, Lisianski, Laysan, Gardner Pinnacles, and French Frigate Shoals
Starr, F. and K. Martz. 1999. A botanical survey of Pearl & Hermes Atoll, Lisianski, Laysan, Gardner Pinnacles, and French Frigate Shoals. S. S. Midway Expedition. Trip report prepared for U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Honolulu, Hawaii).

Oahu Offshore Islets Botanical Survey
Starr, F. and K. Starr. 2006. Oahu Offshore Islets Botanical Survey. Report prepared for State Department of Land and Natural Resources and the Offshore Islet Restoration Committee, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Revised List of Hawaiian Names of Plants Native and Introduced with Brief Descriptions and Notes as to Occurrence and Medicinal or Other Values
Gon III, Samuel M. Ohukaniohia. 2008. Revised List of Hawaiian Names of Plants Native and Introduced with Brief Descriptions and Notes as to Occurrence and Medicinal or Other Values, by Joseph F. Rock Consulting Botanist, Board of Agriculture and Forestry Honolulu, Hawaii, 1920; transcribed and annotated by Samuel M. Ohukaniohia Gon III. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 6:405-442.


Experts

Cynodon dactylon contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Cynodon dactylon as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Other resources

Cynodon dactylon references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Cynodon dactylon as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) project was historically funded by the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) through PIERC (USGS) with support from HCSU (UH Hilo). More details are available online. Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII)

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