Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Cymbopogon refractus
(Poaceae)

  
image of Cymbopogon refractus
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Species description or overview

Cymbopogon refractus information from PIER
Information on Cymbopogon refractus as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Cymbopogon refractus
Nomenclatural information about Cymbopogon refractus is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Cymbopogon refractus information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Cymbopogon refractus--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Cymbopogon refractus information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Cymbopogon refractus, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Cymbopogon refractus
Nomenclatural information about Cymbopogon refractus is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Images

Images of Cymbopogon refractus (Poaceae) (barbwire grass)
Links to high-resolution free images of Cymbopogon refractus (Poaceae) (barbwire grass) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Cymbopogon refractus information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Cymbopogon refractus in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Cymbopogon refractus images from PIER
Images of Cymbopogon refractus provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Distribution

Cymbopogon refractus information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Cymbopogon refractus in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Cymbopogon refractus information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Cymbopogon refractus--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.


Books

Grasses of the Hawaiian ranges (book)
A complete list of all species covered in Grasses of the Hawaiian ranges (Whitney, Hosaka, and Ripperton, 1939) is presented, along with a complete bibliographic citation. This book "describes and illustrates 103 of the most important grasses in Hawaii.... There are many grasses, either recently introduced or slow to become acclimatized, that have not yet established themselves on the ranges; these are not here included. Species that are found outside the general range areas, as in summit bogs, forest reserves, and national parks, are also omitted. Keys to the tribes and genera [are also included." ([adapted] from the book's introduction)


Full-text articles

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.


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