Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Conocarpus erectus
(Combretaceae)

button mangrove, buttonwood, sea mulberry

image of Conocarpus erectus image of Conocarpus erectus image of Conocarpus erectus
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HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING

A message from Dr. David Duffy, Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (PCSU), University of Hawaii (posted 05 November 2012):

Because of a lack of funds, HEAR (www.hear.org) may close as soon as December 15, although there may be enough funds to extend it until February 15. This will mean several things. The web site will be placed on a new server although it is not clear who will pay for the server or for transitioning the site. HEAR data will not be updated. The Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (http://www.hear.org/pier/abtproj.htm) site will also become frozen, as will numerous books, reports and papers (http://www.hear.org/). As software evolves we will likely lose the ability to access the data. The various list servers will need new owners, otherwise moderated lists will cease to function altogether, while other lists will not be able to add or delete members. The photo collection (http://www.hear.org/starr/images/?o=plants) will remain accessible, but only through a third party site that will charge for access.

I should point out that we have already lost the original homes of both the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) and Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) although they have found temporary refuges. Together with HEAR, they represent the corporate memory both here in Hawaii and across the Pacific of efforts to sustain our natural ecosystems and agriculture against problems caused by species alien to the islands. HEAR also serves as the glue that holds the community together, providing information and facilitating communication. I just hope hindsight is kind to this decision.

PLEASE SEND YOUR COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS TO webmaster@hear.org

Let us know if you have suggestions for additional references to add to this page.

On the shores of Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, buttonwood and other types of mangroves are being removed in an attempt to restore some of the ancient Hawaiian fishponds in the vicinity (Staples & Herbst 2005). 

Species description or overview

Conocarpus erectus information from PIER
Information on Conocarpus erectus as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Conocarpus erectus
Nomenclatural information about Conocarpus erectus is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Conocarpus erectus information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Conocarpus erectus--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Conocarpus erectus information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Conocarpus erectus, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Conocarpus erectus
Nomenclatural information about Conocarpus erectus is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Impacts

Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae): species information from GCW
Information on Conocarpus erectus as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).


Risk assessments

Conocarpus erectus weed risk assessment for Hawaii-Pacific
Results of a weed risk assessment for Conocarpus erectus for the Hawaii-Pacific region are presented by the Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment team.


Images

Images of Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) (button mangrove)
Links to high-resolution free images of Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) (button mangrove) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Conocarpus erectus information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Conocarpus erectus in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Conocarpus erectus images from PIER
Images of Conocarpus erectus provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Distribution

Conocarpus erectus information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Conocarpus erectus in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Conocarpus erectus information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Conocarpus erectus--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.


Full-text articles

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants on Midway Atoll, Hawaii.
Starr, F., K. Starr, and Loope L. 2006. Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants on Midway Atoll, Hawaii. An addendum to the 1999 Botanical Survey of Midway Atoll.

Botanical survey of Midway Atoll
Starr, F. and K. Martz. 1999. Botanical survey of Midway Atoll. In: 1995-1999 Baseline Surveys for Alien Species in Marine and Terrestrial Habitats on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Oahu Offshore Islets Botanical Survey
Starr, F. and K. Starr. 2006. Oahu Offshore Islets Botanical Survey. Report prepared for State Department of Land and Natural Resources and the Offshore Islet Restoration Committee, Honolulu, Hawaii.


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) is currently funded by grants from the Hau'oli Mau Loa Foundation and the U.S. Forest Service with support from PCSU (UH Manoa). Historically, HEAR has also received funding and/or support from the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), PIERC (USGS), the USFWS, HCSU (UH Hilo), and HALE (NPS).

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