Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Coccinia grandis
(Cucurbitaceae)

ivy gourd, scarlet gourd, scarlet-fruited gourd

image of Coccinia grandis image of Coccinia grandis image of Coccinia grandis
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HEAR home  >  species info  >  plants  >  Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae)
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Species description or overview Taxonomy & nomenclature Identification Pest alerts Impacts Risk assessments
Control methods Biocontrol efforts Images Distribution Books In the news
Full-text articles Experts Other resources      

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Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis) is a fast-growing vine with variable ivy-shaped leaves, star-shaped white flowers, and red fruits 1-3 inches long.  Coccinia grandis (ivy gourd) was first documented on Oahu in 1968 where it was likely introduced by immigrants from Southeast Asia as a food source.  By the 1970s and 80s ivy gourd had aggressively colonized lowland residential, agricultural, and natural areas on Oahu and in Kona on the Big Island, draping trees and utility wires with heavy vines. 

Species description or overview

Coccinia grandis (ivy gourd) USDA PLANTS profile
A brief profile and taxonomic information on Coccinia grandis (ivy gourd) are from the USDA PLANTS database.

Coccinia grandis information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Coccinia grandis from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Coccinia grandis information from PIER
Information on Coccinia grandis as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).

Coccinia grandis on Maui (Hawaii, USA): species information View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This report on the species Coccinia grandis in Hawaii--with particular emphasis on its status on the island of Maui--includes information about the taxonomy, description, biology and ecology, distribution, control methods, and management recommendations, as well as references.

Coccinia grandis ecology from Global Invasive Species Database
The description, impact, range, habit, management, and life cycle of Coccinia grandis are provided by Global Invasive Species Database.

Coccinia grandis description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Coccinia grandis as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Coccinia grandis
Nomenclatural information about Coccinia grandis is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Coccinia grandis information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Coccinia grandis--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Coccinia grandis information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Coccinia grandis, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Coccinia grandis
Nomenclatural information about Coccinia grandis is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Identification

New plant records from East Maui for 1998 View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Eleven new species are reported for East Maui.


Pest alerts

Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis): MISC target species
Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis) is targeted by the Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC).

Coccinia grandis flyer View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Dr. Clifford W. Smith


Impacts

Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae): species information from GCW
Information on Coccinia grandis as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Coccinia grandis impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Coccinia grandis as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Risk assessments

Coccinia grandis weed risk assessment for Hawaii-Pacific
Results of a weed risk assessment for Coccinia grandis for the Hawaii-Pacific region are presented by the Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment team.


Control methods

USDA Environmental Assessment: Field release of Acythopeus burkhartorum (Coleoptera:Curculionidae), a non-indigenous weevil for control of ivy gourd, Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae), in Guam and Northern Mariana Islands View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Compare high quality images of specimens of Monomorium destructor on this AntWeb site.

Watch out for that - moth! Ivy gourd biocontrol release (photo)
The release of 15 African vine-boring moths by the Hawaii DOA to control the ivy gourd weed was photographed (Star Bulletin, 9/17/1996).

Biological control of the ivy gourd, Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae), in the Marianas Islands
"A biological control program has been initiated in Guam and Saipan following the success achieved in Hawaii by introducing the natural enemies Melittia oedipus Oberthor (Lepidoptera: Sessidae), Acythopeus burkhartorum O'brien and Pakaluk (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Acythopeus cocciniae O'brien and Pakaluk (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)." [excerpted from article]

Ivy gourd biocontrol project - 2006 report
Biocontrol agents are having significant impacts in suppressing ivy gourd population densities, according to this report from the Hawaii Department of Agriculture.

Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001 View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The introduction of 16 insect and five fungal species to control six weeds and four insect pests in Hawaii from 1997-2001 is discussed in a paper by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (Proceedings Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2003).

Coccinia grandis information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Coccinia grandis from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Coccinia grandis management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Coccinia grandis as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Biocontrol efforts

2006 Annual Report for Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA) Plant Pest Control Branch View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
New insect introductions and projects involving invasive species are reviewed in Appendix IV of the 2006 HDOA annual report.

Ivy or scarlet gourd project
The testing of biocontrol agents against ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis is a Hawaii Department of Agriculture project. Brief background information is provided.

Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001 View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The introduction of 16 insect and five fungal species to control six weeds and four insect pests in Hawaii from 1997-2001 is discussed in a paper by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (Proceedings Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2003).

Field release of Acythopeus burkhartorum (Coleoptera:Curculionidae), a non-indigenous weevil for control of ivy gourd, Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae), in Guam and Northern Mariana Islands View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The environmental assessment of proposed biocontrol of ivy gourd was prepared by USDA APHIS (2004).

Biological control of ivy gourd, Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae), in Hawaii
Chun, Marianne E. 2002. Biological control of ivy gourd, Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae), in Hawaii. pp. 8-12 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001
Culliney, Thomas W., Walter T. Nagamine, and Kenneth K. Teramoto. 2003. Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. (2003) 36:145-153.

Coccinia grandis as a biocontrol target in Hawaii
Information and references regarding Coccinia grandis as a biocontrol target in Hawaii--including the status of each of its biocontrol agents--are provided by the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Biological control of ivy gourd, Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae), in Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Three insect biologlcal control agents collected in Kenya have been introduced into Hawaii to combat the exotic weed ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis). The clearwing moth, Melittia oedipus, was released in 1996. The larvae of this moth bore into the mature vines and roots of ivy gourd. It is now established in Hawaii. Two additional agents, which belong to a group known as the African melon weevils, were released in 1999. The first, Acythopeus burkhartorum, forms galls on young shoots. The second, Acythopeus cocciniae, mines ivy gourd leaves. Aspects of the project--including host range testing--are discussed. (adapted from the abstract)


Images

Coccinia grandis images from HEAR
High-quality images of Coccinia grandis are provided by the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Coccinia grandis flyer View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Dr. Clifford W. Smith

Images of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) (ivy gourd)
Links to high-resolution free images of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) (ivy gourd) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Coccinia grandis information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Coccinia grandis in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Coccinia grandis images from PIER
Images of Coccinia grandis provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Distribution

Coccinia grandis information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Coccinia grandis in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Plants of Hawaii: Coccinia grandis -- MAPS
public domain

Coccinia grandis information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Coccinia grandis--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Coccinia grandis on Maui (Hawaii, USA): species information View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This report on the species Coccinia grandis in Hawaii--with particular emphasis on its status on the island of Maui--includes information about the taxonomy, description, biology and ecology, distribution, control methods, and management recommendations, as well as references.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy (2000) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The status of invasive plants, vertebrates, arthropods, molluscs, and crustaceans, and options for a regional invasive species strategy for the South Pacific are presented in this series of articles from the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 2000.

Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis) overview from the Hawaii Invasive Species Council (HISC)
Ivy gourd's description, impacts, images, and distribution in Hawaii are from HISC's high-profile invasive pests site.

Coccinia grandis distribution on Maui (1997) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Verified distribution of Coccinia grandis is shown on a contour map of Maui (HEAR, 1997).

New plant records for Midway Atoll View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Ten new species are reported or Midway (1999).

Coccinia grandis worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Coccinia grandis is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Coccinia grandis: global distribution information from ISSG
taxonomic nomenclature, ITIS, Panicum bisulcatum


Books

Weeds of the West
Whitson, Tom D., Larry C. Burrill, Steven A. Dewey, David W. Cudney, B.E. Nelson, Richard D. Lee, and Robert Parker. Whitson, Tom D. (ed.) . 2001. Weeds of the West. 9th ed. Laramie: University of Wyoming. ISBN: 0-941570-13-4.

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.


In the news

Maui, Lanai need not share View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Invasives from Maui that could threaten Lanai are the topic of Maui Invasive Species Committee's Maui News column (6/14/2009).

Ivy gourd an invader that threatens the native plants View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Ivy guord is the topic of the Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC) Kiai Moku Maui News column (3/9/2008).


Full-text articles

Kanaio Natural Area Reserve: biological inventory and management recommendations
Medeiros, Arthur C., Lloyd L. Loope, and C.G. Chimera. 1993. Kanaio Natural Area Reserve: biological inventory and management recommendations. Natural Area Reserve System, State of Hawaii.

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy
South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP). Sherley, Greg (ed.) . 2000. Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. Apia, Samoa: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. ISBN: 982-04-0214-X.

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.

Vines and Climbing Plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands: an illustrated field guide to the native, naturalized or commonly cultivated vines and lianas of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
Acevedo-Rodriguez, Pedro. 2005. Vines and Climbing Plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands: an illustrated field guide to the native, naturalized or commonly cultivated vines and lianas of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Illustrated by Bobbi Angell. 483 pages.

Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants on Midway Atoll, Hawaii.
Starr, F., K. Starr, and Loope L. 2006. Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants on Midway Atoll, Hawaii. An addendum to the 1999 Botanical Survey of Midway Atoll.

Status of Non-native Plants in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Starr, F., K. Starr, and Loope L. 2001. Status of Non-native Plants in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Poster presentation, 2001 Hawaii Conservation Conference (Hilo, Hawaii).

Botanical survey of Midway Atoll
Starr, F. and K. Martz. 1999. Botanical survey of Midway Atoll. In: 1995-1999 Baseline Surveys for Alien Species in Marine and Terrestrial Habitats on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Oahu Offshore Islets Botanical Survey
Starr, F. and K. Starr. 2006. Oahu Offshore Islets Botanical Survey. Report prepared for State Department of Land and Natural Resources and the Offshore Islet Restoration Committee, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Oahu Offshore Islets Pictorial Guide: Common Plants of Oahu's Offshore Islets
Starr, F. and K. Starr. 2006. Oahu Offshore Islets Pictorial Guide: Common Plants of Oahu's Offshore Islets. Prepared for State Department of Land and Natural Resources and the Offshore Islet Restoration Committee, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds.) . 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages.

Biological control of ivy gourd, Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae), in Hawaii
Chun, Marianne E. 2002. Biological control of ivy gourd, Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae), in Hawaii. pp. 8-12 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001
Culliney, Thomas W., Walter T. Nagamine, and Kenneth K. Teramoto. 2003. Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. (2003) 36:145-153.

Coccinia grandis on Maui (Hawaii, USA): species information View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This report on the species Coccinia grandis in Hawaii--with particular emphasis on its status on the island of Maui--includes information about the taxonomy, description, biology and ecology, distribution, control methods, and management recommendations, as well as references.


Experts

Coccinia grandis contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Coccinia grandis as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Other resources

Coccinia grandis references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Coccinia grandis as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


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