Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Cenchrus echinatus
(Poaceae)

Mossman River grass, bur grass, burgrass, burr grass, common sandbur, golden grass, hedgehog grass, sand bur, sand burr, southern sandbur

image of Cenchrus echinatus image of Cenchrus echinatus image of Cenchrus echinatus
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Species description or overview Taxonomy & nomenclature Impacts Control methods Images
Distribution Where to see this species Books Full-text articles Other resources

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Species description or overview

Cenchrus echinatus information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Cenchrus echinatus from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Cenchrus echinatus information from PIER
Information on Cenchrus echinatus as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Cenchrus echinatus
Nomenclatural information about Cenchrus echinatus is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Cenchrus echinatus information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Cenchrus echinatus--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Cenchrus echinatus information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Cenchrus echinatus, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Cenchrus echinatus
Nomenclatural information about Cenchrus echinatus is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Impacts

Cenchrus echinatus (Poaceae): species information from GCW
Information on Cenchrus echinatus as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).


Control methods

Cenchrus echinatus information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Cenchrus echinatus from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).


Images

Images of Cenchrus echinatus (Poaceae) (sandbur)
Links to high-resolution free images of Cenchrus echinatus (Poaceae) (sandbur) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Cenchrus echinatus information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Cenchrus echinatus in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Cenchrus echinatus images from PIER
Images of Cenchrus echinatus provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Distribution

Cenchrus echinatus information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Cenchrus echinatus in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Cenchrus echinatus information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Cenchrus echinatus--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

New plant records for the Hawaiian Archipelago (2001) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
New island records, new state records, and range extensions of plants located on Midway Atoll, Pearl and Hermes Reef, Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii, State of Hawaii are in this report.


Where to see this species

Kahoolawe (Kanaloa): natural areas of Hawaii
Forest and Kim Starr provide information about the island of Kahoolawe as a natural area in Hawaii. Links to additional resources are provided, as well as links to images of plant species found on Kahoolawe.


Books

Weed handbook of Western Polynesia
Whistler, W. Arthur. 1983. Weed handbook of Western Polynesia. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft f#r Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. ISBN: 3-88085-227-8.

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.

Grasses of the Hawaiian ranges (book)
A complete list of all species covered in Grasses of the Hawaiian ranges (Whitney, Hosaka, and Ripperton, 1939) is presented, along with a complete bibliographic citation. This book "describes and illustrates 103 of the most important grasses in Hawaii.... There are many grasses, either recently introduced or slow to become acclimatized, that have not yet established themselves on the ranges; these are not here included. Species that are found outside the general range areas, as in summit bogs, forest reserves, and national parks, are also omitted. Keys to the tribes and genera [are also included." ([adapted] from the book's introduction)


Full-text articles

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

The grasses of Hawaii
Hitchcock, A.S. 1922. The grasses of Hawaii. Honolulu, Bishop Museum Press : New York, Kraus Reprint Co. (1974). 235 pp. illus. (line drawings).

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.

Maui Offshore Islet Botanical Survey
Starr, F., K. Starr, and Wood K. 2006. Maui Offshore Islet Botanical Survey. Report prepared for State Department of Land and Natural Resources and the Offshore Islet Restoration Committee, Honolulu, Hawaii.

New plant records from the Hawaiian archipelago
Starr, Forest, Kim Martz, and Lloyd L. Loope. 2002. New plant records from the Hawaiian archipelago. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2000. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 69:16-27.

Botanical inventory of Kure Atoll
Starr, Forest, Kim Martz, and Lloyd Loope. 2001. Botanical inventory of Kure Atoll. Prepared for Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife (Honolulu). 47 pp. illus.

Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants on Midway Atoll, Hawaii.
Starr, F., K. Starr, and Loope L. 2006. Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants on Midway Atoll, Hawaii. An addendum to the 1999 Botanical Survey of Midway Atoll.

Status of Non-native Plants in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Starr, F., K. Starr, and Loope L. 2001. Status of Non-native Plants in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Poster presentation, 2001 Hawaii Conservation Conference (Hilo, Hawaii).

Botanical survey of Midway Atoll
Starr, F. and K. Martz. 1999. Botanical survey of Midway Atoll. In: 1995-1999 Baseline Surveys for Alien Species in Marine and Terrestrial Habitats on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii.

A botanical survey of Pearl & Hermes Atoll, Lisianski, Laysan, Gardner Pinnacles, and French Frigate Shoals
Starr, F. and K. Martz. 1999. A botanical survey of Pearl & Hermes Atoll, Lisianski, Laysan, Gardner Pinnacles, and French Frigate Shoals. S. S. Midway Expedition. Trip report prepared for U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Honolulu, Hawaii).

Oahu Offshore Islets Botanical Survey
Starr, F. and K. Starr. 2006. Oahu Offshore Islets Botanical Survey. Report prepared for State Department of Land and Natural Resources and the Offshore Islet Restoration Committee, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Oahu Offshore Islets Pictorial Guide: Common Plants of Oahu's Offshore Islets
Starr, F. and K. Starr. 2006. Oahu Offshore Islets Pictorial Guide: Common Plants of Oahu's Offshore Islets. Prepared for State Department of Land and Natural Resources and the Offshore Islet Restoration Committee, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Lanai Offshore Islets Botanical Survey
Starr, F., K. Starr, and K. Wood. 2006. Lanai Offshore Islets Botanical Survey. Report prepared for State Department of Land and Natural Resources and the Offshore Islet Restoration Committee, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Revised List of Hawaiian Names of Plants Native and Introduced with Brief Descriptions and Notes as to Occurrence and Medicinal or Other Values
Gon III, Samuel M. Ohukaniohia. 2008. Revised List of Hawaiian Names of Plants Native and Introduced with Brief Descriptions and Notes as to Occurrence and Medicinal or Other Values, by Joseph F. Rock Consulting Botanist, Board of Agriculture and Forestry Honolulu, Hawaii, 1920; transcribed and annotated by Samuel M. Ohukaniohia Gon III. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 6:405-442.


Other resources

The grasses of Hawaii
Hitchcock, A.S. 1922. The grasses of Hawaii. Honolulu, Bishop Museum Press : New York, Kraus Reprint Co. (1974). 235 pp. illus. (line drawings).


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) project was historically funded by the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) through PIERC (USGS) with support from HCSU (UH Hilo). More details are available online. Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII)

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