Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Casuarina equisetifolia
(Casuarinaceae)

Australian beefwood, Australian pine, beefwood, casuarina, common ironwood, horsetail tree, ironwood, she oak

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HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING

A message from Dr. David Duffy, Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (PCSU), University of Hawaii (posted 05 November 2012):

Because of a lack of funds, HEAR (www.hear.org) may close as soon as December 15, although there may be enough funds to extend it until February 15. This will mean several things. The web site will be placed on a new server although it is not clear who will pay for the server or for transitioning the site. HEAR data will not be updated. The Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (http://www.hear.org/pier/abtproj.htm) site will also become frozen, as will numerous books, reports and papers (http://www.hear.org/). As software evolves we will likely lose the ability to access the data. The various list servers will need new owners, otherwise moderated lists will cease to function altogether, while other lists will not be able to add or delete members. The photo collection (http://www.hear.org/starr/images/?o=plants) will remain accessible, but only through a third party site that will charge for access.

I should point out that we have already lost the original homes of both the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) and Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) although they have found temporary refuges. Together with HEAR, they represent the corporate memory both here in Hawaii and across the Pacific of efforts to sustain our natural ecosystems and agriculture against problems caused by species alien to the islands. HEAR also serves as the glue that holds the community together, providing information and facilitating communication. I just hope hindsight is kind to this decision.

PLEASE SEND YOUR COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS TO webmaster@hear.org

Let us know if you have suggestions for additional references to add to this page.

Casuarina equisetifolia is a 60115' tall monoecious evergreen tree with a spire-shaped crown and gray-green drooping branches to 12" long and small cones (to 1").  Casuarina equisetifolia is widely introduced and naturalized, and is almost ubiquitous on beaches throughout the tropics. Its ability to fix free nitrogen allows it to thrive on coastal sands where few other plants can survive; under these conditions it can form a virtual monocultre, excluding all other plant species; it may be allelopathic. Over 70,000 ironwood trees were planted in Hawaiian forest reserves; It is now one of the most wiespread trees in the Hawaiian landscape (Staples & Herbst 2005).  Casuarina equisetifolia is native to tropical and subrtopical coastlines in a gast geographic range extending from Myanmar throughout southeast Asia, Indonesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and northern and northeastern Australia. 

Species description or overview

Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia) fact sheet
Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia) description, habitat, biology, and management options are provided by Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group.

Traditional tree Casuarina equisetifolia and Casuarina cunninghamiana View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Casuarina overview is provided by the Traditional Tree Initiative's species profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www.traditionaltree.org).

Casuarina equisetifolia information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Casuarina equisetifolia from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Casuarina equisetifolia information from PIER
Information on Casuarina equisetifolia as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).

Casuarina equisetifolia description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Casuarina equisetifolia as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Casuarina equisetifolia information from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Casuarina equisetifolia is presented with respect to this species being a forest tree in Hawaii. The information on this site is from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1989 publication by Little and Skolmen entitled "Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced)."


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Casuarina equisetifolia
Nomenclatural information about Casuarina equisetifolia is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Casuarina equisetifolia information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Casuarina equisetifolia--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Casuarina equisetifolia information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Casuarina equisetifolia, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Casuarina equisetifolia
Nomenclatural information about Casuarina equisetifolia is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Pest alerts

Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia) fact sheet
Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia) description, habitat, biology, and management options are provided by Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group.


Impacts

Casuarina equisetifolia (Casuarinaceae): species information from GCW
Information on Casuarina equisetifolia as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Casuarina equisetifolia impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Casuarina equisetifolia as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Risk assessments

Casuarina equisetifolia weed risk assessment for Hawaii-Pacific
Results of a weed risk assessment for Casuarina equisetifolia for the Hawaii-Pacific region are presented by the Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment team.


Control methods

Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia) fact sheet
Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia) description, habitat, biology, and management options are provided by Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group.

Casuarina equisetifolia information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Casuarina equisetifolia from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Casuarina equisetifolia management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Casuarina equisetifolia as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Images

Images of Casuarina equisetifolia (Casuarinaceae) (ironwood)
Links to high-resolution free images of Casuarina equisetifolia (Casuarinaceae) (ironwood) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Casuarina equisetifolia information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Casuarina equisetifolia in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Casuarina equisetifolia images from PIER
Images of Casuarina equisetifolia provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Distribution

Casuarina equisetifolia information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Casuarina equisetifolia in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Casuarina equisetifolia information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Casuarina equisetifolia--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy (2000) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The status of invasive plants, vertebrates, arthropods, molluscs, and crustaceans, and options for a regional invasive species strategy for the South Pacific are presented in this series of articles from the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 2000.

Casuarina equisetifolia worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Casuarina equisetifolia is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Cited as invasive (on a list)

2007 FLEPPC invasive plant list View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council's 2007 List of Invasive Plant Species focus includes adverse effects exotic pest plants have on Florida's biodiversity and plant communities.


Where to see this species

Kahoolawe (Kanaloa): natural areas of Hawaii
Forest and Kim Starr provide information about the island of Kahoolawe as a natural area in Hawaii. Links to additional resources are provided, as well as links to images of plant species found on Kahoolawe.


Books

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

A field guide to tropical and subtropical plants
Perry, Frances and Roy Hay. 1982. A field guide to tropical and subtropical plants. Ward Lock Limited, Great Britain. 136 pp. illus. ISBN: 0-442-26859-9.

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.

Identification and biology of nonnative plants in Florida's natural areas (second edition)
Langeland, K.A., H.M. Cherry, C.M. McCormick, and K.A. Craddock Burks. 2008. Identification and biology of nonnative plants in Florida's natural areas (second edition). The University of Florida IFAS Communication Services (Gainesville). 193+ pp. illus. ISBN: 978-0-916287-70-2.


Full-text articles

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy
South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP). Sherley, Greg (ed.) . 2000. Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. Apia, Samoa: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. ISBN: 982-04-0214-X.

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.

Maui Offshore Islet Botanical Survey
Starr, F., K. Starr, and Wood K. 2006. Maui Offshore Islet Botanical Survey. Report prepared for State Department of Land and Natural Resources and the Offshore Islet Restoration Committee, Honolulu, Hawaii.

An updated, indexed bibliography of the herpetofauna of Florida
Enge, Kevin M. 2002. An updated, indexed bibliography of the herpetofauna of Florida. Technical report no. 19.

New plant records from Midway Atoll for 1999
Starr, Forest and Kim Martz. 2000. New plant records from Midway Atoll for 1999. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1999. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 64:10-12.

Control of non-native plants in natural areas of Florida
Langeland, K.A. and R.L. Stocker. (1997-)2001. Control of non-native plants in natural areas of Florida. SP 242, one of a series of the Department of Agronomy, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. First printed: 1997. Revised: April, 2001.

Botanical inventory of Kure Atoll
Starr, Forest, Kim Martz, and Lloyd Loope. 2001. Botanical inventory of Kure Atoll. Prepared for Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife (Honolulu). 47 pp. illus.

Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants on Midway Atoll, Hawaii.
Starr, F., K. Starr, and Loope L. 2006. Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants on Midway Atoll, Hawaii. An addendum to the 1999 Botanical Survey of Midway Atoll.

Botanical survey of Midway Atoll
Starr, F. and K. Martz. 1999. Botanical survey of Midway Atoll. In: 1995-1999 Baseline Surveys for Alien Species in Marine and Terrestrial Habitats on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii.

A botanical survey of Pearl & Hermes Atoll, Lisianski, Laysan, Gardner Pinnacles, and French Frigate Shoals
Starr, F. and K. Martz. 1999. A botanical survey of Pearl & Hermes Atoll, Lisianski, Laysan, Gardner Pinnacles, and French Frigate Shoals. S. S. Midway Expedition. Trip report prepared for U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Honolulu, Hawaii).

Oahu Offshore Islets Botanical Survey
Starr, F. and K. Starr. 2006. Oahu Offshore Islets Botanical Survey. Report prepared for State Department of Land and Natural Resources and the Offshore Islet Restoration Committee, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Oahu Offshore Islets Pictorial Guide: Common Plants of Oahu's Offshore Islets
Starr, F. and K. Starr. 2006. Oahu Offshore Islets Pictorial Guide: Common Plants of Oahu's Offshore Islets. Prepared for State Department of Land and Natural Resources and the Offshore Islet Restoration Committee, Honolulu, Hawaii.


Experts

Casuarina equisetifolia contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Casuarina equisetifolia as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Other resources

Casuarina equisetifolia references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Casuarina equisetifolia as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) is currently funded by grants from the Hau'oli Mau Loa Foundation and the U.S. Forest Service with support from PCSU (UH Manoa). Historically, HEAR has also received funding and/or support from the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), PIERC (USGS), the USFWS, HCSU (UH Hilo), and HALE (NPS).

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