Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Ageratina adenophora
(Asteraceae)

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Species description or overview Taxonomy & nomenclature Impacts Control methods Biocontrol efforts
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Ageratina adenophora (the so-called "Maui pamakani") is native to Mexico and the West Indies and was introduced to Maui prior to 1886. It occurs in dry to wet forests and pastures on Oahu, Lanai, Molokai, and Maui at 900-6000 ft elevation.  In Hawaii, Ageratina adenophora displaces understory vegetation and is toxic to livestock.   Ageratina adenophora is native to Mexico and the West Indies. 


Species description or overview

Ageratina adenophora information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Ageratina adenophora from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Ageratina adenophora information from PIER
Information on Ageratina adenophora as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Ageratina adenophora
Nomenclatural information about Ageratina adenophora is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Ageratina adenophora information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Ageratina adenophora--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Ageratina adenophora information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Ageratina adenophora, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Ageratina adenophora
Nomenclatural information about Ageratina adenophora is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Impacts

Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae): species information from GCW
Information on Ageratina adenophora as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).


Control methods

Ageratina adenophora information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Ageratina adenophora from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Herbicidal weed control methods for pastures and natural areas of Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This comprehensive review of herbicide application methods includes calculations for formulations, and appendices listing herbicides registered for use in Hawaii and their toxicities (University of Hawaii, 2002).


Biocontrol efforts

Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W. 2002. Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii. pp. 91-98 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Ageratina adenophora as a biocontrol target in Hawaii
Information and references regarding Ageratina adenophora as a biocontrol target in Hawaii--including the status of each of its biocontrol agents--are provided by the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).


Images

Images of Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae) (Maui pamakani, pamakani haole)
Links to high-resolution free images of Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae) (Maui pamakani, pamakani haole) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Ageratina adenophora information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Ageratina adenophora in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Ageratina adenophora images from PIER
Images of Ageratina adenophora provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Distribution

Ageratina adenophora information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Ageratina adenophora in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Ageratina adenophora information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Ageratina adenophora--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.


Books

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Invasive plants of California's wildlands
Bossard, Carla C., John M. Randall, and Marc C. Hoshovsky (eds.) . 2000. Invasive plants of California's wildlands. University of California Press. 360 pp. illus. ISBN: 0-520-22547-3.

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.


Full-text articles

Kanaio Natural Area Reserve: biological inventory and management recommendations
Medeiros, Arthur C., Lloyd L. Loope, and C.G. Chimera. 1993. Kanaio Natural Area Reserve: biological inventory and management recommendations. Natural Area Reserve System, State of Hawaii.

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
Medeiros, A.C. 2004. Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu.

Revised List of Hawaiian Names of Plants Native and Introduced with Brief Descriptions and Notes as to Occurrence and Medicinal or Other Values
Gon III, Samuel M. Ohukaniohia. 2008. Revised List of Hawaiian Names of Plants Native and Introduced with Brief Descriptions and Notes as to Occurrence and Medicinal or Other Values, by Joseph F. Rock Consulting Botanist, Board of Agriculture and Forestry Honolulu, Hawaii, 1920; transcribed and annotated by Samuel M. Ohukaniohia Gon III. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 6:405-442.

Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds.) . 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages.

Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W. 2002. Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii. pp. 91-98 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.


Other resources

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
After rain forest of Haleakala National Park was fenced in the late 1980s, native vegetation responded vigorously yet three problematic plant invaders (Clidemia hirta, Hedychium gardnerianum, and Psidium cattleianum) continued to spread unabated and became of great concern to Park managers. This contribution provides a quantitative assessment of crucial life history junctures (quantitative phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal, seed predation, seedling establishment) to assist Haleakala NP and other managers of Hawaiian rain forests. It also provides detailed information for potentially identifying key characteristics in prevention, rapid response, and prioritization of incoming invasive species. (This document is the 2004 Ph.D. dissertation of Dr. Arthur C. Medeiros for the Department of Zoology at the University of Hawaii.)

Distribution and Spread of Alien Plants in Kipahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park, above 2,300 ft Elevation View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
A baseline survey based on a network of 20 transects and 400 plots provides information on alien plant distribution during feral pig removal and prior to alien plant control efforts in Kipahulu Valley, Maui (from Alien Plant Invasions in Native Ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and Research, 1992, 39 pp).


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) project was historically funded by the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) through PIERC (USGS) with support from HCSU (UH Hilo). More details are available online. Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII)

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