Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Acacia koa
(Fabaceae)

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Species description or overview Taxonomy & nomenclature Impacts Pests of this species Cultivation & propagation
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Species description or overview

Acacia koa information from Native Plants Hawaii
Information about Acacia koa--including details regarding plant, flower, and leaf characteristics; pests and diseases; growth requirements; and environment--is provided by Native Plants Hawaii.

Traditional tree Acacia koa and Acacia koaia View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Native Hawaiian koa overview is provided by Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www.traditionaltree.org).

Koa (Acacia koa) ecology and silviculture: USDA technical report View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format  important item 
Koa (Acacia koa) is a tree species endemic to Hawaii that is of immense ecological and economic importance. This species has been mined from local forests for its wood for more than 100 years, and extensive areas of koa-dominated forests have been converted to grazing lands. Today, in recognition of the great importance and value of koa and the forests in which it is found, there is substantial interest in restoration and management of koa forests. This U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) report brings together knowledge on the biogeography, physiology, ecology, and silviculture of koa in an effort to assist landowners and resource stewards in making sound decisions about restoring and managing koa forests.

Acacia koa information from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Acacia koa is presented with respect to this species being a forest tree in Hawaii. The information on this site is from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1989 publication by Little and Skolmen entitled "Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced)."

Acacia koa information from NTBG
Information about Acacia koa is available from the National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Acacia koa
Nomenclatural information about Acacia koa is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Acacia koa information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Acacia koa--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Acacia koa information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Acacia koa, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Acacia koa
Nomenclatural information about Acacia koa is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Impacts

Koa forest in Kokee: Recovery and threats (video)
A native koa forest on Kauai that regenerated after hurricane Iwa and salvage logging in 1982 is now threatened by invasive species including strawberry guava and kahili ginger (YouTube video posted by foresters from the University of Hawaii College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, 11/24/2009).


Pests of this species

Acacia koa diseases and associated fungi
Koa diseases, including the "koa decline" syndrome, are reviewed in this paper by Donald E. Gardner, University of Hawaii Botany Department.

Koa wilt
Images, symptoms, range, and control of koa wilt are presented in this publication from University of Hawaii College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources.

Koa wilt fact sheet View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Images of koa infected by the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. koae are on this pest alert.

Koa pest and disease image gallery
More than 100 digital photos of pests and diseases of koa (Acacia koa Gray) in Hawaii are provided here to help koa growers diagnose their pest or disease problems (UH CTAHR).

Rusts of Acacia koa: Atelocauda digitata (Gall Rust) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Biology, disease cycle, images, and control of koa gall rust are presented by University of Hawaii, CTAHR.

Koa (Acacia koa) ecology and silviculture: USDA technical report View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Koa (Acacia koa) is a tree species endemic to Hawaii that is of immense ecological and economic importance. This species has been mined from local forests for its wood for more than 100 years, and extensive areas of koa-dominated forests have been converted to grazing lands. Today, in recognition of the great importance and value of koa and the forests in which it is found, there is substantial interest in restoration and management of koa forests. This U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) report brings together knowledge on the biogeography, physiology, ecology, and silviculture of koa in an effort to assist landowners and resource stewards in making sound decisions about restoring and managing koa forests.


Cultivation & propagation

Production and marketing profile for Acacia koa View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Patty: pls. also add (using similar format as this one) these entries (using ):

Acacia koa (koa) propagation and cultivation (UH/CTAHR)
Propagation and cultivation information about Acacia koa (koa) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (UH/CTAHR).

Acacia koa information from Native Plants Hawaii
Information about Acacia koa--including details regarding plant, flower, and leaf characteristics; pests and diseases; growth requirements; and environment--is provided by Native Plants Hawaii.

How to plant a native Hawaiian garden View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
An instructional handbook on planting a native Hawaiian garden was prepared by Office of Environmental Quality Control to guide the establishment of native gardens in schools throughout Hawaii to stimulate the awareness and appreciation of Hawaii's rare and fragile environmental resources (1992).

In the Garden: Koa
Native koa is the topic of this Rick Barboza column (Honolulu Star-Bulletin Features, 6/14/2002).

In the Garden: Koa trees grow at low levels
Koa (Acacia koa), which can grow at low elevations, is the topic of this Rick Barboza column (Honolulu Star-Bulletin Features, 9/15/2006).

Development, wilt evaluation and marketing of improved seeds of Acacia koa
Research on breeding koa for wilt resistance is described in this progress report from the University of Hawaii.

Acacia koa soilborne disease management
Research on grafting koa to other Acacia root stock for soilborne disease management is described in this progress report from the University of Hawaii.

A guide to determining wood properties of Acacia koa View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Koa wood properties and a sampling strategy for collecting wood samples in populations of koa to add commercial value are described in this paper from the Hawaii Agriculture Research Center (2000).

Fertilizer, thinning help to increase koa tree diameters
The diameter of koa trees increased by 120 percent in a test plot by fertilizing the trees and thinning competing trees, according to U.S. Forest Service scientists and the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry on the Big Island (Honolulu Advertiser, 3/27/2008).

Establishing silvopastures with Acacia koa (video)
Innovative methods for removing corridors of pasture grasses to allow koa seedlings to emerge, and herbicide trials and scarification methods are examined in a YouTube video posted by University of Hawaii College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (7/10/2009).


Recovery & restoration

Ecological assessment and economic feasibility of a practical strategy for regenerating koa forests in Hawaii
Research on managing koa regeneration is described in this progress report from the University of Hawaii.

Koa (Acacia koa) ecology and silviculture: USDA technical report View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Koa (Acacia koa) is a tree species endemic to Hawaii that is of immense ecological and economic importance. This species has been mined from local forests for its wood for more than 100 years, and extensive areas of koa-dominated forests have been converted to grazing lands. Today, in recognition of the great importance and value of koa and the forests in which it is found, there is substantial interest in restoration and management of koa forests. This U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) report brings together knowledge on the biogeography, physiology, ecology, and silviculture of koa in an effort to assist landowners and resource stewards in making sound decisions about restoring and managing koa forests.

Koa forest in Kokee: Recovery and threats (video)
A native koa forest on Kauai that regenerated after hurricane Iwa and salvage logging in 1982 is now threatened by invasive species including strawberry guava and kahili ginger (YouTube video posted by foresters from the University of Hawaii College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, 11/24/2009).


Videos

Establishing silvopastures with Acacia koa (video)
Innovative methods for removing corridors of pasture grasses to allow koa seedlings to emerge, and herbicide trials and scarification methods are examined in a YouTube video posted by University of Hawaii College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (7/10/2009).

Koa forest in Kokee: Recovery and threats (video)
A native koa forest on Kauai that regenerated after hurricane Iwa and salvage logging in 1982 is now threatened by invasive species including strawberry guava and kahili ginger (YouTube video posted by foresters from the University of Hawaii College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, 11/24/2009).


Images

Images of Acacia koa (Fabaceae) (koa)
Links to high-resolution free images of Acacia koa (Fabaceae) (koa) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Acacia koa information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Acacia koa in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Acacia koa images from Native Plants Hawaii
Images of Acacia koa are provided on the Native Plants Hawaii website.

Acacia to Azadirachta images and weed risk assessment scores
Images of trees Acacia to Azadirachta, and their weed risk assessment scores, listed alphabetically, are from the University of Hawaii Forestry Extension.

Acacia koa images by Jupiter Nielsen
Images of Acacia koa are provided online by Maui artist/photographer Jupiter Nielsen.

Acacia koa images by Karl Magnacca
Images of Acacia koa by Karl Magnacca are available online.


Distribution

Acacia koa information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Acacia koa in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Acacia koa information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Acacia koa--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Koa (Acacia koa) ecology and silviculture: USDA technical report View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Koa (Acacia koa) is a tree species endemic to Hawaii that is of immense ecological and economic importance. This species has been mined from local forests for its wood for more than 100 years, and extensive areas of koa-dominated forests have been converted to grazing lands. Today, in recognition of the great importance and value of koa and the forests in which it is found, there is substantial interest in restoration and management of koa forests. This U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) report brings together knowledge on the biogeography, physiology, ecology, and silviculture of koa in an effort to assist landowners and resource stewards in making sound decisions about restoring and managing koa forests.


Books

Koa (Acacia koa) ecology and silviculture: USDA technical report View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Koa (Acacia koa) is a tree species endemic to Hawaii that is of immense ecological and economic importance. This species has been mined from local forests for its wood for more than 100 years, and extensive areas of koa-dominated forests have been converted to grazing lands. Today, in recognition of the great importance and value of koa and the forests in which it is found, there is substantial interest in restoration and management of koa forests. This U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) report brings together knowledge on the biogeography, physiology, ecology, and silviculture of koa in an effort to assist landowners and resource stewards in making sound decisions about restoring and managing koa forests.

Hawaii's ferns and fern allies
Palmer, Daniel D. 2003. Hawaii's ferns and fern allies. Contribuition no. 2002-010 to the Hawaii Biological Survey. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 324 pp. ISBN: 0-8248-2522-5.

Our familiar island trees
Frear, Mary Dillingham. 1929. Our familiar island trees. Sponsored by The Outdoor Circle of Honolulu. Boston: Richard G. Badger, The Gorham Press. 161 pp. illus.

Hawaii's butterflies & moths: an identification guide to easily observed species
Jamieson, Dean and Jim Denny. 2001. Hawaii's butterflies & moths: an identification guide to easily observed species. A Hawaii Biological Survey Handbook. Mutual Publishing.


In the news

Importing safe insects the only hope of saving Maui's native koa forests
Maui botanist Art Medeiros supports the introduction of the scale insect for strawberry guava biological control. His arguments are expressed in this Viewpoints article (Maui News, 11/2/2008).

Fertilizer, thinning help to increase koa tree diameters
The diameter of koa trees increased by 120 percent in a test plot by fertilizing the trees and thinning competing trees, according to U.S. Forest Service scientists and the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry on the Big Island (Honolulu Advertiser, 3/27/2008).


Full-text articles

Kanaio Natural Area Reserve: biological inventory and management recommendations
Medeiros, Arthur C., Lloyd L. Loope, and C.G. Chimera. 1993. Kanaio Natural Area Reserve: biological inventory and management recommendations. Natural Area Reserve System, State of Hawaii.

The expansion of koa forest after cattle and goat removal, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park
Tunison, J. Timothy, A.A. McKinney, and W.L. Markiewicz. 1995. The expansion of koa forest after cattle and goat removal, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Technical report 99. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy
South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP). Sherley, Greg (ed.) . 2000. Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. Apia, Samoa: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. ISBN: 982-04-0214-X.

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
Medeiros, A.C. 2004. Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu.

Revised List of Hawaiian Names of Plants Native and Introduced with Brief Descriptions and Notes as to Occurrence and Medicinal or Other Values
Gon III, Samuel M. Ohukaniohia. 2008. Revised List of Hawaiian Names of Plants Native and Introduced with Brief Descriptions and Notes as to Occurrence and Medicinal or Other Values, by Joseph F. Rock Consulting Botanist, Board of Agriculture and Forestry Honolulu, Hawaii, 1920; transcribed and annotated by Samuel M. Ohukaniohia Gon III. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 6:405-442.

Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds.) . 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages.

Biological control of gorse in Hawaii: a program review
Markin, George P., Patrick Conant, Eloise Killgore, and Ernest Yoshioka. 2002. Biological control of gorse in Hawaii: a program review. pp. 53-1 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Grafting of Acacia koa Gray onto young Acacia seedlings
Nelson, Scot C. 2006. Grafting of Acacia koa Gray onto young Acacia seedlings. Native Plants Journal 7(2):137-140.


Other resources

Biochemical characterization of Acacia koa for commercial value and ecological attributes
Research on flavonoid profiles of koa, their relationship to disease resistance, and characterization of neutraceutical properties of phyllodes are described in this progress report from the University of Hawaii.

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
After rain forest of Haleakala National Park was fenced in the late 1980s, native vegetation responded vigorously yet three problematic plant invaders (Clidemia hirta, Hedychium gardnerianum, and Psidium cattleianum) continued to spread unabated and became of great concern to Park managers. This contribution provides a quantitative assessment of crucial life history junctures (quantitative phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal, seed predation, seedling establishment) to assist Haleakala NP and other managers of Hawaiian rain forests. It also provides detailed information for potentially identifying key characteristics in prevention, rapid response, and prioritization of incoming invasive species. (This document is the 2004 Ph.D. dissertation of Dr. Arthur C. Medeiros for the Department of Zoology at the University of Hawaii.)


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) project was historically funded by the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) through PIERC (USGS) with support from HCSU (UH Hilo). More details are available online. Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII)

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