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Anderson, R. C., and D. E. Gardner. 1999. An evaluation of the wilt-causing bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum as a potential biological control agent for the alien kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) in Hawaiian forests. Biological Control 15:89-96.

ABSTRACT
Kahili Ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) is an invasive weed in tropical forests in Hawaii and elsewhere. Bacterial wilt caused by the ginger strain of Ralstonia (=Pseudomonas) solanacearum systemically infects edible ginger (Zingiber officinale) and ornamental ginger (Hedychium spp.), causing wilt in infected plants. The suitability of R. solancearum as a biological control agent for kahili ginger was investigated by inoculating seedlings and rooted cuttings of native forest plants, ornamental ginger, and solanaceous species to confirm host specificity. Inoculation via stem injection or root wounding with bacterial-water suspension was followed by observation for 8 weeks. Inoculations on H. gardnerianum were then carried out in ohia-lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) wet forests of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park to determine the bacterium's efficacy in the field. No native forests or solanaceous species developed wilt or other symptoms during the study. The bacterium caused limited infection near the inoculation site on H. coronarium, Z. zerumbet, Heliconia latispatha, and Musa sapientum. However, infection did not become systemic in any of these species, and normal growth resumed following appearance of initial symptoms. All inoculated H. gardernerianum plants developed irreversible chlorosis and severe wilting 3-4 weeks following inoculation. Systemic infection also caused death and decays of rhizomes. Most plants were completely dead 16-20 weeks following inoculation. The destructiveness of the ginger strain R. solancearum to edible ginger has raised questions regarding its use for biological control. However, because locations of kahili ginger infestations are often remote, the risk of contaminating edible ginger planting is unlikely. The ability of this bacterium to cause severe disease in H. gardnerianum in the field together with its lack of virulence in other ginger species, contributes to its potential as a biological control agent.

FULL TEXT
Full text not available for this publication.

HOSTS
Hedychium gardnerianum - Kahili ginger

PATHOGENS
Ralstonia solanacearum - Ralstonia

RELEVANT TO BIOCONTROL
Yes.

KEY WORDS
Hedychium gardneranium, Ralstonia solancearum.

IMAGES
04_044 -- Atelocauda koae 04_044 - Atelocauda koae
PATHOGEN: Aspergillus melleus
07_042 -- kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum 07_042 - kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum
PATHOGEN: Aspergillus melleus
07_044 -- kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum 07_044 - kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum
PATHOGEN: Aspergillus melleus
07_046 -- kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum 07_046 - kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum
PATHOGEN: Aspergillus melleus
07_048 -- kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum 07_048 - kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum
PATHOGEN: Aspergillus melleus
07_050 -- kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum 07_050 - kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum
PATHOGEN: Aspergillus melleus
09_028 -- white and kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum in g-house 09_028 - white and kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum in g-house
PATHOGEN: Aspergillus melleus
09_029 -- white and kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum in g-house 09_029 - white and kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum in g-house
PATHOGEN: Aspergillus melleus
09_030 -- white and kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum in g-house 09_030 - white and kahili ginger inoculated with Pseudomonas solanacearum in g-house
PATHOGEN: Aspergillus melleus
14_036 -- kahili ginger with bacterial wilt 10 weeks after inoculation 14_036 - kahili ginger with bacterial wilt 10 weeks after inoculation
PATHOGEN: Aspergillus melleus
14_037 -- treated cut ginger 10 months after inoculation 14_037 - treated cut ginger 10 months after inoculation
PATHOGEN: Aspergillus melleus
14_075 -- kahili ginger 14_075 - kahili ginger
PATHOGEN: Aspergillus melleus
42_074 -- lab 42_074 - lab
PATHOGEN: Aspergillus melleus
42_075 -- lab 42_075 - lab
PATHOGEN: Aspergillus melleus
42_076 -- lab 42_076 - lab
PATHOGEN: Aspergillus melleus


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