Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Streptosolen jamesonii


RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTS: Low risk, score: 2 (low risk based on second screen)


Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawai‘i.
Information on Risk Assessments
Original risk assessment

Streptosolen jamesonii (Benth.) Miers. Family - Solanaceae. Common Names(s) - Marmalade bush, Orange browallia. Synonym(s) - Browallia jamesonii.

Answer

Score

1.01

Is the species highly domesticated?

y=-3, n=0

n

0

1.02

Has the species become naturalized where grown?

y=1, n=-1

1.03

Does the species have weedy races?

y=-1, n=-1

2.01

Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) – If island is primarily wet habitat, then substitute “wet tropical” for “tropical or subtropical”

See Append 2

2

2.02

Quality of climate match data (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) see appendix 2

1

2.03

Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility)

y=1, n=0

n

0

2.04

Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climates

y=1, n=0

y

1

2.05

Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range?

y=-2, ?=-1, n=0

y

3.01

Naturalized beyond native range y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2), n= question 2.05

y

2

3.02

Garden/amenity/disturbance weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

3.03

Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

3.04

Environmental weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

3.05

Congeneric weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

4.01

Produces spines, thorns or burrs

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.02

Allelopathic

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.03

Parasitic

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.04

Unpalatable to grazing animals

y=1, n=-1

4.05

Toxic to animals

y=1, n=0

4.06

Host for recognized pests and pathogens

y=1, n=0

y

1

4.07

Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.08

Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.09

Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.10

Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions if not a volcanic island)

y=1, n=0

y

1

4.11

Climbing or smothering growth habit

y=1, n=0

4.12

Forms dense thickets

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.01

Aquatic

y=5, n=0

n

0

5.02

Grass

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.03

Nitrogen fixing woody plant

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.04

Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs, corms, or tubers)

y=1, n=0

n

0

6.01

Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat

y=1, n=0

n

0

6.02

Produces viable seed.

y=1, n=-1

y

1

6.03

Hybridizes naturally

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

6.04

Self-compatible or apomictic

y=1, n=-1

6.05

Requires specialist pollinators

y=-1, n=0

n

0

6.06

Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

6.07

Minimum generative time (years) 1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 4+ years = -1

See left

2+

0

7.01

Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked areas)

y=1, n=-1

7.02

Propagules dispersed intentionally by people

y=1, n=-1

y

1

7.03

Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.04

Propagules adapted to wind dispersal

y=1, n=-1

y

1

7.05

Propagules water dispersed

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.06

Propagules bird dispersed

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.07

Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally)

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.08

Propagules survive passage through the gut

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

8.01

Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)

y=1, n=-1

8.02

Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)

y=1, n=-1

8.03

Well controlled by herbicides

y=-1, n=1

8.04

Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire

y=1, n=-1

y

1

8.05

Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)

y=-1, n=1

Total score:

2

Supporting data:

Notes

Source

1.01

(1)No evidence.

(1)Staples, G. W. and D. R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press. Honolulu, HI.

1.02

1.03

2.01

(1)Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds. (2)For favoured inland, temperate or subtropical places few evergreens equal the beauty of this floriferous bush.

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p. (2)Sheat, B., W. G. Sheat and G. Schofield. 1995. Complete Gardening in Southern Africa. Struik Publishers. Cape Town, South Africa.

2.02

(1)Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds. (2)For favoured inland, temperate or subtropical places few evergreens equal the beauty of this floriferous bush.

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p. (2)Sheat, B., W. G. Sheat and G. Schofield. 1995. Complete Gardening in Southern Africa. Struik Publishers. Cape Town, South Africa.

2.03

(1)Zones 10 and 11 as a permanent perennial; zone 9b as a returning perennial.

(1)Riffle, R. L. 1998. The Tropical Look: An Encyclopedia of Dramatic Landscape Plants. Timber Press. Portland, OR.

2.04

(1Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds. (2)For favoured inland, temperate or subtropical places few evergreens equal the beauty of this floriferous bush. (3)This collection represents a new state record for the naturalized flora of the Hawaiian Islands...It is occasionally cultivated as an ornamental in the Koke‘e area and has become naturalized along the roadside with other weedy species at least in Halemanu Valley. Material examined. KAUA‘I: Waimea District, Koke‘e State Park, Halemanu Valley Road ca. 0.4 miles NE of turnoff from NASA tracking station on Hwy. 550; mesic forest with Acacia koa dominant, invaded by Morus, Corynocarpus, Rubus, Myrica, Hedychium, Fuchsia and other weeds, 1040 m, 12 Aug 1996, Lorence , Endress & Endress 7801 (PTBG).

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p. (2)Sheat, B., W. G. Sheat and G. Schofield. 1995. Complete Gardening in Southern Africa. Struik Publishers. Cape Town, South Africa. (3)Staples, G. W. and D. R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press. Honolulu, HI.

2.05

(1)Although widely planted in tropical and subtropical regions of the world as an ornamental, it had not been reported to spread from cultivation until it was recently found naturalized on Kauai.

(1)Staples, G. W. and D. R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press. Honolulu, HI.

3.01

(1)This collection represents a new state record for the naturalized flora of the Hawaiian Islands...It is occasionally cultivated as an ornamental in the Koke‘e area and has become naturalized along the roadside with other weedy species at least in Halemanu Valley. Material examined. KAUA‘I: Waimea District, Koke‘e State Park, Halemanu Valley Road ca. 0.4 miles NE of turnoff from NASA tracking station on Hwy. 550; mesic forest with Acacia koa dominant, invaded by Morus, Corynocarpus, Rubus, Myrica, Hedychium, Fuchsia and other weeds, 1040 m, 12 Aug 1996, Lorence , Endress & Endress 7801 (PTBG).

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p.

3.02

(1)Listed as a potential environmental weed, but other than naturalization, no environmental impacts have been documented to date (2)has become naturalized along the roadside with other weedy species at least in Halemanu Valley [possible distrubance weed]

(1)Staples, G. W., D. Herbst and C. T. Imada .2000. Survey of Invasive or Potentially Invasive Cultivated Plants in Hawaii. A Special Publication of the Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1999. Honolulu, Hawaii.

3.03

(1)No evidence of weediness in agriculture, forestry or horticulture

(1)http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/streptosolen_jamesonii/ [Accessed 07 Apr 2009]

3.04

(1)Listed as a potential environmental weed, but other than naturalization, no environmental impacts have been documented to date

(1)Staples, G. W., D. Herbst and C. T. Imada .2000. Survey of Invasive or Potentially Invasive Cultivated Plants in Hawaii. A Special Publication of the Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1999. Honolulu, Hawaii.

3.05

(1)The only member of Streptosolen, of the nightshade family Solanaceae, is a very handsome evergreen flowering shrub of Colombia and Ecuador. Once included in Browallia, it differs from that genus in having a twisted corolla tube that widens at the throat.

(1)Everett , T. H. 1982. The New York Botanical Garden illustrated encyclopedia of horticulture. Taylor & Francis. London, UK.

4.01

(1)Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds.

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p.

4.02

(1)This collection represents a new state record for the naturalized flora of the Hawaiian Islands...It is occasionally cultivated as an ornamental in the Koke‘e area and has become naturalized along the roadside with other weedy species at least in Halemanu Valley. Material examined. KAUA‘I: Waimea District, Koke‘e State Park, Halemanu Valley Road ca. 0.4 miles NE of turnoff from NASA tracking station on Hwy. 550; mesic forest with Acacia koa dominant, invaded by Morus, Corynocarpus, Rubus, Myrica, Hedychium, Fuchsia and other weeds [no evidence of allelopathy, and plant growing with several other species]

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p.

4.03

(1)Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds.

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p.

4.04

Unknown

4.05

(1)By the way, in case you're tempted to taste to the flowers, I don't know if they are edible. Like its cousin the Brugmansia, it may contain a toxin. [no further evidence found, but possibly poisonous as a member of Solanaceae]

(1)http://www.strangewonderfulthings.com/164.htm [Accessed 07 Apr 2009]

4.06

(1)The chief pests are aphids, red spider mites, and whiteflies. (2)Potato spindle tuber viroid PSTVd Brugmansia spp. (Angel’s trumpet), Petunia x hybrida, Solanum jasminoides (potato vine), S. muricatum (pepino), Streptosolen jamesonii (marmalade bush) (3)Six pospiviroids have been reported to cause serious infections in tomato i.e., Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Columnea latent viroid CLVd), Tomato apical stunt viroid TASVd), Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd), Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) and Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). In most cases the origin of these infections remained unknown. Since CLVd only had been reported from symptomlessly infected plants of three ornamental plant species, the question arose whether ornamentals might function as viroid sources. Therefore, vegetatively propagated ornamental plants were tested for pospiviroids over the last few years. In this way many symptomless pospiviroid infections were detected i.e., CEVd in Verbena sp. and Solanum jasminoides, Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) in S. jasminoides, TASVd in Cestrum sp. and S. jasminoides, TCDVd in Brugmansia sanguinea and Petunia sp. and PSTVd in Brugmansia spp., Datura sp., S. jasminoides and Streptosolen jamesonii. All identifications were based on sequence analyses of full-length viroid genomes obtained after RT-PCR with (semi-) universal pospiviroid primers. Trading of ornamental plants may lead to unnoticed viroid spread, as the viroid infected ornamental plants did not show any symptoms. Moreover, some viroid-host plant combinations concerned a large number of plants; for example, the number of PSTVd-infected plants of S. jasminoides exceeds 100,000 by far. Viroid spread by trading was shown by testing imported plants. In this way, TCDVd-infected plants of Petunia were intercepted in imports from Japan and the USA, and PSTVd-infected plants of S. jasminoides were intercepted in imports from Israel and Kenya. On the other hand, testing of symptomless plants of Brugmansia spp. and S. jasminoides revealed that PSTVd-infected plants of these species very likely were exported from the Netherlands until recently. In our tests many pospiviroid infected ornamental plants have been found. However, their role in the epidemiology of pospiviroids still remains unsolved: further studies are needed to unravel the ways by which viroids might be spread from ornamentals to vegetable crops like tomato and potato. Potential ways of spread by humans and insects will be discussed.

(1)Everett , T. H. 1982. The New York Botanical Garden illustrated encyclopedia of horticulture. Taylor & Francis. London, UK. (2)Mathews, D. M. 2009. Viruses and Viroids as Invasive Plant Pathogens. CORFnews Winter/Spring 2009: 1-4. (3)Verhoeven, J.Th.J., C.C.C. Jansen, A.W. Werkman and J.W. Roenhorst. 2007. Pospiviroid infections in ornamental plants and their potential risks for vegetable crops. Pp. 7 in P. L. Kumar, RAC Jones and F. Waliyar (eds.). 10th International Plant Virus Epidemiology Symposium Controlling Epidemics of Emerging and Established Plant Virus Diseases - The Way Forward. 15 - 19 October 2007 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Patancheru 502 324, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

4.07

(1)SOME LOW-ALLERGEN PLANTS [list included S. jamesonii]

(1)http://www.aboutthegarden.com.au/pdf/FS23%20Low-allergy%20gardens.pdf [Accessed 07 Apr 2009]

4.08

(1)Ecuador, Zamora Chinchipe, Estacion Cientifica San Francisco, Road Loja-Zamora, 30 km east of Loja. "Canal-path" along a north-facing slope opposite to the ECSF. - Mountain rainforest., 3° S, 79° 4' W, 1800mm habitat: Along the road, secondary vegetation. [rainforest vegetation, no evidence of increased fire hazards]

(1)http://www.biologie.uni-ulm.de/cgi-bin/query_all/details.pl?id=83880&stufe=A&typ=PFL&sid=T&lang=e&pr=nix [Accessed 07 Apr 2009]

4.09

(1)The plant is a sun-lover, at its best in warm, dryish atmospheric conditions. (2)thrives in sunny, drier locations with cooler temperatures (3)Light Range: Full Sun

(1)Everett , T. H. 1982. The New York Botanical Garden illustrated encyclopedia of horticulture. Taylor & Francis. London, UK. (2)Staples, G. W. and D. R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press. Honolulu, HI. (3)http://www.backyardgardener.com/plantname/pda_dced-2.html [Accessed 07 Apr 2009]

4.10

(1)Any well-drained, reasonably fertile soil is adequate. (2)Soil Range: Sandy Loam to Clay Loam

(1)Staples, G. W. and D. R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press. Honolulu, HI. (2)http://www.backyardgardener.com/plantname/pda_dced-2.html [Accessed 07 Apr 2009]

4.11

(1)Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds. (2)A climbing shrub which attains a height of 1.8-2.4 m, thriving best at medium-to-high elevations. [potential to climb over and smother other plants, but no evidence found]

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p. (2)Randhawa, G. S. and A. Mukhopadhyay. 1986. Floriculture in India. Allied Publishers. Mumbai, India.

4.12

(1)This collection represents a new state record for the naturalized flora of the Hawaiian Islands...It is occasionally cultivated as an ornamental in the Koke‘e area and has become naturalized along the roadside with other weedy species at least in Halemanu Valley. Material examined. KAUA‘I: Waimea District, Koke‘e State Park, Halemanu Valley Road ca. 0.4 miles NE of turnoff from NASA tracking station on Hwy. 550; mesic forest with Acacia koa dominant, invaded by Morus, Corynocarpus, Rubus, Myrica, Hedychium, Fuchsia and other weeds, 1040 m, 12 Aug 1996, Lorence , Endress & Endress 7801 (PTBG). [no evidence of dense thicket formation yet]

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p.

5.01

(1)Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds.

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p.

5.02

(1)Solanaceae

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p.

5.03

(1)Solanaceae

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p.

5.04

(1)Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds.

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p.

6.01

(1)No evidence

(1)Gentry, A. H. 1993. A Field Guide to the Families and Genera of Woody Plants of Northwest South America (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru) with supplementary notes on herbaceous taxa. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, IL.

6.02

(1)Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds. (2)Propagated from seeds and cuttings

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p. (2)Randhawa, G. S. and A. Mukhopadhyay. 1986. Floriculture in India. Allied Publishers. Mumbai, India.

6.03

(1)A monotypic genus native to low elevations of the Andes Mountains in Colombia and Peru [no evidence of inter-generic hybridization]

(1)Riffle, R. L. 1998. The Tropical Look: An Encyclopedia of Dramatic Landscape Plants. Timber Press. Portland, OR.

6.04

(1)The present work relates to the influence of the anthers and stigma on secretion in floral nectaries of Streptosolen jamttesonii, Miers. In this species the flowers are perfect and the nectary forms part of the ovary. [unknown]

(1)Shuel, R. W. 1961. Influence of Reproductive Organs on Secretion of Sugars in Flowers of Streptosolen Jamesonii, Miers. Plant Physiology, Vol. 36, No. 2: 265-271.

6.05

(1)In Streptosolen, very probably an ornithophilous descendant of the Browallia stock, the mechanism is much simplified.

(1)Cocucci, A. 1995. Floral mechanisms in the tribe Salpiglossidae (Solanaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 194(3-4): 207-230.

6.06

(1)Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds. (2)Propagated from seeds and cuttings [no evidence that plant spreads vegetatively]

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p. (2)Randhawa, G. S. and A. Mukhopadhyay. 1986. Floriculture in India. Allied Publishers. Mumbai, India.

6.07

(1)a fast-growing shrub (2)an easy and speedy grower without many demands

(1)Oakman, H. 1995. Harry Oakman's what flowers when: the complete guide to flowering times in tropical and subtropical gardens. Univ. of Queensland Press. St. Lucia, Australia. (2)Sparrow, J. and G. Hanly. 2002. Subtropical plants: a practical gardening guide. Timber Press. Portland, OR.

7.01

(1)This collection represents a new state record for the naturalized flora of the Hawaiian Islands...Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds...It is occasionally cultivated as an ornamental in the Koke‘e area and has become naturalized along the roadside with other weedy species at least in Halemanu Valley. Material examined. KAUA‘I: Waimea District, Koke‘e State Park, Halemanu Valley Road ca. 0.4 miles NE of turnoff from NASA tracking station on Hwy. 550; mesic forest with Acacia koa dominant, invaded by Morus, Corynocarpus, Rubus, Myrica, Hedychium, Fuchsia and other weeds, 1040 m, 12 Aug 1996, Lorence , Endress & Endress 7801 (PTBG).

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p. (2)http://www.biologie.uni-ulm.de/cgi-bin/query_all/details.pl?id=83880&stufe=A&typ=PFL&sid=T&lang=e&pr=nix [Accessed 07 Apr 2009]

7.02

(1)Although widely planted in tropical and subtropical regions of the world as an ornamental, it had not been reported to spread from cultivation until it was recently found naturalized on Kauai.

(1)Staples, G. W. and D. R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press. Honolulu, HI.

7.03

(1)No evidence that this plant is grown with any produce or used in floral arrangements

(1)Staples, G. W. and D. R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press. Honolulu, HI.

7.04

(1)Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds.

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p.

7.05

(1)This collection represents a new state record for the naturalized flora of the Hawaiian Islands...Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds...It is occasionally cultivated as an ornamental in the Koke‘e area and has become naturalized along the roadside with other weedy species at least in Halemanu Valley. Material examined. KAUA‘I: Waimea District, Koke‘e State Park, Halemanu Valley Road ca. 0.4 miles NE of turnoff from NASA tracking station on Hwy. 550; mesic forest with Acacia koa dominant, invaded by Morus, Corynocarpus, Rubus, Myrica, Hedychium, Fuchsia and other weeds, 1040 m, 12 Aug 1996, Lorence , Endress & Endress 7801 (PTBG).

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p. (2)http://www.biologie.uni-ulm.de/cgi-bin/query_all/details.pl?id=83880&stufe=A&typ=PFL&sid=T&lang=e&pr=nix [Accessed 07 Apr 2009]

7.06

(1)Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds. [not fleshy-fruited]

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p.

7.07

(1)Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds. [no means of external attachment]

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p.

7.08

(1)Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds. [capsules and seeds unlikely to be eaten]

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p.

8.01

(1)Native to Andean South America, Streptosolen jamesonii is an unarmed shrub up to 2 m tall with arching branches, a pubescence of simple hairs, simple alternate leaves with elliptic blades 2.5-5 cm long, showy, salverform corollas with a yellow tube 2.5 cm long and red-orange lobes 1.5-2 cm long, and dry, capsular fruits with numerous minute seeds. [seed numbers unknown]

(1)Lorence, D. H. and T. Flynn. 1997. New Naturalized Plant Records for Kaua‘i. Pp. 9-13 in N. L. Evenhuis and L. G. Eldredge (eds.). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1996—Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 49: 71 p.

8.02

Unknown

8.03

Unknown [no information on control of this species found]

 

8.04

(1)Prune heavily to contain the plant and to stimulate new growth on which blossoms are borne throughout the growing season.

(1)Reich, L. 1999. The Pruning Book. Taunton Press. Newtown, CT.

8.05

Unknown


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