Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Strelitzia reginae


RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTS: Low risk, score: -3


Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawai‘i.

Research directed by C. Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service

Information on Risk Assessments
Original risk assessment

Strelitzia reginae Aiton (bird-of-paradise, crane flower)

Answer

1.01

Is the species highly domesticated?

y=-3, n=0

n

1.02

Has the species become naturalized where grown?

y=-1, n=-1

n

1.03

Does the species have weedy races?

y=-1, n=-1

n

2.01

Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) – If island is primarily wet habitat, then substitute “wet tropical” for “tropical or subtropical”

See Append 2

1

2.02

Quality of climate match data (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) see appendix 2

1

2.03

Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility)

y=1, n=0

n

2.04

Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climates

y=1, n=0

n

2.05

Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range? y=-2

?=-1, n=0

y

3.01

Naturalized beyond native range y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2), n= question 2.05

n

3.02

Garden/amenity/disturbance weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

3.03

Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

3.04

Environmental weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

3.05

Congeneric weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

4.01

Produces spines, thorns or burrs

y=1, n=0

n

4.02

Allelopathic

y=1, n=0

n

4.03

Parasitic

y=1, n=0

n

4.04

Unpalatable to grazing animals

y=1, n=-1

y

4.05

Toxic to animals

y=1, n=0

4.06

Host for recognized pests and pathogens

y=1, n=0

n

4.07

Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans

y=1, n=0

n

4.08

Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems

y=1, n=0

n

4.09

Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle

y=1, n=0

y

4.1

Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions if not a volcanic island)

y=1, n=0

y

4.11

Climbing or smothering growth habit

y=1, n=0

n

4.12

Forms dense thickets

y=1, n=0

n

5.01

Aquatic

y=5, n=0

n

5.02

Grass

y=1, n=0

n

5.03

Nitrogen fixing woody plant

y=1, n=0

n

5.04

Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs, corms, or tubers)

y=1, n=0

n

6.01

Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat

y=1, n=0

n

6.02

Produces viable seed.

y=1, n=-1

y

6.03

Hybridizes naturally

y=1, n=-1

6.04

Self-compatible or apomictic

y=1, n=-1

y

6.05

Requires specialist pollinators

y=-1, n=0

y

6.06

Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation

y=1, n=-1

6.07

Minimum generative time (years) 1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 4+ years = -1

See left

4

7.01

Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked areas)

y=1, n=-1

n

7.02

Propagules dispersed intentionally by people

y=1, n=-1

y

7.03

Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant

y=1, n=-1

n

7.04

Propagules adapted to wind dispersal

y=1, n=-1

n

7.05

Propagules water dispersed

y=1, n=-1

7.06

Propagules bird dispersed

y=1, n=-1

7.07

Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally)

y=1, n=-1

n

7.08

Propagules survive passage through the gut

y=1, n=-1

8.01

Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)

y=1, n=-1

n

8.02

Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)

y=1, n=-1

n

8.03

Well controlled by herbicides

y=-1, n=1

8.04

Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire

y=1, n=-1

y

8.05

Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)

y=-1, n=1

Total score:

-3

Supporting data:

Notes

Source

1.01

No evidence

1.02

No evidence

1.03

No evidence

2.01

Strelitzia reginae is, however, indigenous to South Africa where it grows wild in the eastern Cape.

http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantqrs/strelitziareginae.htm

2.02

2.03

USDA Zones 9 - 11. (2) Hardiness Range 10A to 11, Long-lived perennial in frost free areas (3)Plants of riverbanks and forest glades

http://www.floridata.com/ref/S/stre_reg.cfm (2) Horticopia A-Z.Horticopia, Inc., Purcellville, VA. ISBN 1-887215-07-7. (3)Mabberley, D.J. 1997. The plant book. Cambridge University Press

2.04

Strelitzia reginae is, however, indigenous to South Africa where it grows wild in the eastern Cape.

http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantqrs/strelitziareginae.htm

2.05

(1)It was introduced to European gardeners in 1773 when it was part of a shipment of horticultural specimens bound for the Royal Botanical Garden of King George III. (2)Although best growth and flowerproduction occurs in California and Hawaii, enough flowersdevelop under Florida landscape conditions to warrant planting

(1)http://www.floridata.com/ref/S/stre_reg.cfm (2)http://216.239.53.104/search?q=cache:Z54nnhHLRlIJ:
hort.ifas.ufl.edu/shrubs/STRREGA.PDF+Strelitzia+reginae&hl=en

3.01

No evidence

3.02

No evidence

3.03

No evidence

3.04

Invasive potential: not known to be invasive

http://216.239.53.104/search?q=cache:Z54nnhHLRlIJ:
hort.ifas.ufl.edu/shrubs/STRREGA.PDF+Strelitzia+reginae&hl=en

3.05

No evidence

4.01

No evidence

4.02

No evidence

4.03

No evidence

4.04

(1)Listed as a plant that deer avoid. (2)Susceptibility to deer is listed as resistant. Rare or minor damage by deer.

(1)http://216.239.53.104/search?q=cache:KHWYrG-u8NgJ:ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/filelibrary/40/954.pdf+Strelitzia+reginae+deer&hl=en

4.05

may be toxic to livestock [symptoms unknown]

http://www.rockisland.com/~castalia/plants.html

4.06

AB: Larvae of Sesamia nonagrioides were found damaging fruit of persimmon var. Triumph in Bizzaron, Israel, in November 1985. The noctuid is an important pest of maize and other gramineous plants in Israel and probably migrated to the orchard from maize fields. This is the first record of S. nonagrioides attacking fruit; the pest has only once been found on a non-gramineous host, attacking the ornamental plant Strelitzia reginae in the Azores. [a rare host for this pest]

Wysoki, M. Melamed-Madjar, V. (1986) Sesamia nonagrioides on persimmon in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 1986, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 320, 2 ref.

4.07

(1)"The unripe seed pods may severely irritate the digestive tract, causing nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. A case of poisoning of two boys was recorded in Arizona, USA. Symptoms appeared within 30 minutes and lasted for about 24 hours." [very rare] (2)Nontoxic Ornamental Plant

(1)http://groups.google.com/groups?q=
Strelitzia+reginae++seed+hair&hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&selm=VkLg4.2168%24py2.135844%40
news.corecomm.net&rnum=1 (2)http://epuppy.stormloader.com/plants.html

4.08

Strelitzia reginae is an evergreen perennial

http://www.plantoftheweek.org/week096.shtml

4.09

(1)Plants do well in full sun to semi-shade. … Young strelitzia plants must be grown in shade, for the leaves tend to burn in direct sunlight. (2)Partial to Full Shade

(1)http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantqrs/strelitziareginae.htm (2)http://plantsdatabase.com/go/54553

4.1

Soil tolerances: occasionally wet; clay; sand; acidic; loam;slightly alkaline

http://216.239.53.104/search?q=cache:Z54nnhHLRlIJ:
hort.ifas.ufl.edu/shrubs/STRREGA.PDF+Strelitzia+reginae&hl=en

4.11

Not a climber

4.12

No evidence

5.01

Terrestrial

5.02

Strelitziaceae

5.03

No evidence

5.04

No evidence

6.01

No evidence

6.02

A constant temperature of 25 C is most suitable for germination as low temperatures retard germination. Germination takes four to eight weeks.

http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantqrs/strelitziareginae.htm

6.03

In 1909, S. x kewensis,a hybrid between S. reginae and S. alba, flowered at Kew for the first time, producing pale watery yellow flowers. Unfortunately it now seems to have disappeared from cultivation.

http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/ksheets/bop.html

6.04

AB: Fruting ratio in cross and self pollination were 91.75 and 40.76%, respectively. The number of seeds by cross pollination and self pollination were 24.5 and 10.4 per fruit.

Wang ZhenZhong; Cai BangPing; Chen DengXiong; Wang YingChun (2001) Self-pollination and cross pollination in Strelitzia reginae Banks. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2001, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 32-35, 8 ref.

6.05

(1)The structure and pollination of the flowers are rather interesting. The hard, beak-like sheath from which the flower emerges, is called the spathe. This is placed at right angles to the stem, which gives it the appearance of a bird's head. The flowers, which emerge one at a time from the spathe, consist of 3 brilliant orange sepals and 3 bright blue petals. Two of the blue petals are joined together to form an arrow-like nectary. When the birds sit to have a drink of nectar, the petals open to cover their feet in pollen. (2)Pollination by sunbird (Nectarinia afra) (3)I find that humming birds love them; every day each of the plants is visited by a couple of them. They seem to polinate them as well since we seem to get seeds without artificial polination.

(1)http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantqrs/strelitziareginae.htm (2)Mabberley, D.J. 1997. The plant book. Cambridge University Press (30http://plantsdatabase.com/go/54553

6.06

(1)Propagation is by seed or division. (2)Propagation: The best way to propagate is by division of clumps. Can be grown from seed as well. [clump forming, not spread by vegetative runners, however the plant grows along riverbanks so possibly spread during floods]

(1)http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantqrs/strelitziareginae.htm (2)http://www.floridata.com/ref/S/stre_reg.cfm

6.07

(1)From seed, plants given ideal conditions will flower within 3 years. To get a mature flowering plant from seed takes about three to five years. (2)Divisions may take two years to reach blooming size, when grown from seed it will take from seven to ten years before you see your first flower.

(1)http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantqrs/strelitziareginae.htm (2)http://www.thegardenhelper.com/birdofparadise.htm

7.01

large seeds have no means of attachment.

7.02

This must be one of the most well-known plants in the world. The fascinating blooms are sold as cut flowers by the million. In Los Angeles strelitzias are so extensively planted that it is regarded as the emblem of the city.

http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantqrs/strelitziareginae.htm

7.03

Strelitzien seeds are approximately pea large. [seeds not associated with floral arrangements]

http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=de&u=
http://www.kuebelpflanzeninfo.de/exot/strelitzie.htm&prev=/search%3Fq%3D
Strelitzia%2Breginae%26start%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26sa%3DN

7.04

large seeds, no evidence of wind dispersal adaptations.

7.05

Plants of riverbanks and forest glades [seeds or capsule might float]

Mabberley, D.J. 1997. The plant book. Cambridge University Press

7.06

The resulting fruit is a leathery capsule containing numerous small seeds, each with an orange aril (an outgrowth from the seed similar to the red sheath around yew seeds) and an oil body, possibly to attract birds.

http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/ksheets/bop.html

7.07

No evidence that the propagules have any means of attachment.

7.08

The resulting fruit is a leathery capsule containing numerous small seeds, each with an orange aril (an outgrowth from the seed similar to the red sheath around yew seeds) and an oil body, possibly to attract birds.[aril may be consumed, not seed]

http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/ksheets/bop.html

8.01

(1)Fruit length: less than .5 inch (2)Strelitzien seeds are approximately pea large. [Probably not - relatively large seeds]

(1)http://216.239.53.104/search?q=cache:Z54nnhHLRlIJ:
hort.ifas.ufl.edu/shrubs/STRREGA.PDF+Strelitzia+reginae&hl=en (2)http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=de&u=
http://www.kuebelpflanzeninfo.de/exot/strelitzie.htm&prev=/search%3Fq%3D
Strelitzia%2Breginae%26start%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26sa%3DN

8.02

To grow from seed, use seeds less than 6 month old

http://www.floralartmall.com/birdofparadise.html

8.03

No evidence t hat the species is being controlled for.

8.04

This year I did serious trimming; cutting out all the very tall leaves and the ones that did not look 100% healthy and even some roots that were not deep enough. In response to this drastic measure, I now have, on average, 20-30 flowers per plant!

http://plantsdatabase.com/go/54553

8.05

Don’t know


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