Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Moringa oleifera


RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTS: Low risk, score: 1 (low risk based on second screen)


Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawai‘i.

Research directed by C. Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service

Information on Risk Assessments
Original risk assessment

Moringa oleifera (drumstick tree, horse-raddish tree)

Answer

1.01

Is the species highly domesticated?

y=-3, n=0

n

1.02

Has the species become naturalized where grown?

y=-1, n=-1

y

1.03

Does the species have weedy races?

y=-1, n=-1

n

2.01

Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) – If island is primarily wet habitat, then substitute “wet tropical” for “tropical or subtropical”

See Append 2

2

2.02

Quality of climate match data (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) see appendix 2

2

2.03

Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility)

y=1, n=0

y

2.04

Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climates

y=1, n=0

y

2.05

Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range? y=-2

?=-1, n=0

y

3.01

Naturalized beyond native range y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2), n= question 2.05

y

3.02

Garden/amenity/disturbance weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

3.03

Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

3.04

Environmental weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

3.05

Congeneric weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

4.01

Produces spines, thorns or burrs

y=1, n=0

n

4.02

Allelopathic

y=1, n=0

n

4.03

Parasitic

y=1, n=0

n

4.04

Unpalatable to grazing animals

y=1, n=-1

n

4.05

Toxic to animals

y=1, n=0

n

4.06

Host for recognized pests and pathogens

y=1, n=0

n

4.07

Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans

y=1, n=0

n

4.08

Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems

y=1, n=0

n

4.09

Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle

y=1, n=0

n

4.1

Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions if not a volcanic island)

y=1, n=0

y

4.11

Climbing or smothering growth habit

y=1, n=0

n

4.12

Forms dense thickets

y=1, n=0

n

5.01

Aquatic

y=5, n=0

n

5.02

Grass

y=1, n=0

n

5.03

Nitrogen fixing woody plant

y=1, n=0

y

5.04

Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs, corms, or tubers)

y=1, n=0

n

6.01

Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat

y=1, n=0

n

6.02

Produces viable seed.

y=1, n=-1

y

6.03

Hybridizes naturally

y=1, n=-1

6.04

Self-compatible or apomictic

y=1, n=-1

6.05

Requires specialist pollinators

y=-1, n=0

n

6.06

Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation

y=1, n=-1

n

6.07

Minimum generative time (years) 1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 4+ years = -1

See left

2

7.01

Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked areas)

y=1, n=-1

n

7.02

Propagules dispersed intentionally by people

y=1, n=-1

y

7.03

Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant

y=1, n=-1

n

7.04

Propagules adapted to wind dispersal

y=1, n=-1

y

7.05

Propagules water dispersed

y=1, n=-1

7.06

Propagules bird dispersed

y=1, n=-1

n

7.07

Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally)

y=1, n=-1

n

7.08

Propagules survive passage through the gut

y=1, n=-1

n

8.01

Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)

y=1, n=-1

n

8.02

Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)

y=1, n=-1

n

8.03

Well controlled by herbicides

y=-1, n=1

8.04

Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire

y=1, n=-1

y

8.05

Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)

y=-1, n=1

Total score:

1

Supporting data:

Source

Notes

1.01

No evidence

1.02

(1)Native to India, Arabia, and possibly Africa and the East Indies; widely cultivated and naturalized in tropical Africa, tropical America, Sri Lanka, India, Mexico, Malabar, Malaysia and the Philippine Islands. (2)Some naturalization noted on Guam.

(1)http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Moringa_oleifera.html#Uses (2)http://www.hear.org/pier3/moole.htm

1.03

No evidence

2.01

(1)Thrives in subtropical and tropical climates, flowering and fruiting freely and continuously. (2) 'A native of the sub-Himalayan regions of north west India, Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is now indigenous to many countries in Africa, Arabia, South East Asia, the Pacific and Caribbean Islands and South America.'

(1)http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Moringa_oleifera.html#
Uses(20http://www.le.ac.uk/engineering/staff/Sutherland/moringa/general/general.htm

2.02

2.03

(1) 'Originally considered a tree of hot, semi-arid regions (annual rainfall 250 - 1500mm) it has also been found to be well adapted to hot, humid, wet conditions with annual rainfall in excess of 3000mm. The tree was originally considered to be suitable only for lowland cultivation at altitudes less than 600m. However, the adaptability of the tree has been demonstrated by the discovery of natural stands at altitudes of 1200m in Mexico and in excess of 2000m in Zimbabwe.' (2)Approximate limits north to south: 30°N to 25°S (3)Altitude: 0-1 000 m

(1)http://www.le.ac.uk/engineering/staff/Sutherland/moringa/general/general.htm (2)CAB International, 2000. Forestry Compendium Global Module. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. (3)http://www.icraf.cgiar.org/treessd/AFT/cfm/SpeciesInfo.cfm?SpID=1169

2.04

'A native of the sub-Himalayan regions of north west India, Moringa oleifera (M.oleifera) is now indigenous to many countries in Africa, Arabia, South East Asia, the Pacific and Caribbean Islands and South America.'

http://www.le.ac.uk/engineering/staff/Sutherland/moringa/general/general.htm

2.05

'A native of the sub-Himalayan regions of north west India, Moringa oleifera (M.oleifera) is now indigenous to many countries in Africa, Arabia, South East Asia, the Pacific and Caribbean Islands and South America.'

http://www.le.ac.uk/engineering/staff/Sutherland/moringa/general/general.htm

3.01

Native to India, Arabia, and possibly Africa and the East Indies; widely cultivated and naturalized in tropical Africa, tropical America, Sri Lanka, India, Mexico, Malabar, Malaysia and the Philippine Islands.

http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Moringa_oleifera.html#Uses

3.02

No evidence

3.03

No evidence

3.04

moderately invasive, defined as spreading but still occur at low densities and not considered an immediate problem (no specifics given)

http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/worldlist.htm

3.05

No evidence

4.01

No evidence

http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Moringa_oleifera.html#Uses

4.02

No evidence

4.03

No evidence

4.04

Foliage and twigs are a useful fodder for cattle, sheep, goats and camels

CAB International, 2000. Forestry Compendium Global Module. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

4.05

Foliage and twigs are a useful fodder for cattle, sheep, goats and camels

CAB International, 2000. Forestry Compendium Global Module. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

4.06

(1) 'Fruitflies (Gitona spp.) have infested the fruits which then dried out at the tip and rotted. Leaves of young plants and freshly planted stumps are attacked by several species of weevils (Myllocerus discolor var. variegatus, M. 11-pustulatus, M. tenuiclavis, M. viridanus and Ptochus ovulum). Also parasitized by the flowering plant, Dendrophthoe flacata. Fungi which attack the horseradish-tree include: Cercospora moringicola (Leaf-spot), Sphaceloma morindae (Spot anthracnose), Puccinia moringae (rust), Oidium sp., Polyporus gilvus. [Did not find the above pathogens to be recognized as serious pests.] (2)Root rot (Diplodia spp.) and papaya powdery mildew (Levellula taurica) have been observed. The hairy caterpillar Eupterote mollifera causes defoliation but can becontrolled by spraying the tree with fish oil, resin soap or BHC. [Did not find the above pathogens to be recognized as serious pests.]

(1)http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Moringa_oleifera.html#Uses (2)http://www.icraf.cgiar.org/treessd/AFT/cfm/SpeciesInfo.cfm?SpID=1169

4.07

The leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds and roots of this tree are consumed as food.

http://www.le.ac.uk/engineering/staff/Sutherland/moringa/vege/vege.htm

4.08

Unlikely, doesn't grow in dense stands (requires high light), open crown structure

http://agrss.sherman.hawaii.edu/onfarm/tree/tree0012.html

4.09

It prefers open rather than shaded situations, such as field or farm boundaries and hedges.

CAB International, 2000. Forestry Compendium Global Module. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

4.1

(1) 'M.oleifera can also grow in a variety of soil conditions. Although preferring well drained sandy or loamy soils, heavier clay soils will be tolerated although water logging should be avoided. The tree is reported to be tolerant to light frosts and can be established in slightly alkaline soils up to pH 9. ' (2)adapted to a wide range of soil types but does well in well drained clay or clay loam without prolonged waterlogging. Prefers a neutral to slightly acidic soil reaction, but it has recently been introduced with success in Pacific atolls where the pH is as high as 8.5.

(1)http://www.le.ac.uk/engineering/staff/Sutherland/moringa/general/general.htm (2)http://www.icraf.cgiar.org/treessd/AFT/cfm/SpeciesInfo.cfm?SpID=1169

4.11

No evidence - not a vine

4.12

No evidence

5.01

5.02

5.03

M. oleifera is a fast-growing, deciduous, nitrogen-fixing tree up to 15 m tall and 1.0-1.5 m in girth.

CAB International, 2000. Forestry Compendium Global Module. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

5.04

6.01

In general terms it is known that the tree

will grow rapidly from seeds or cuttings.

http://www.le.ac.uk/engineering/staff/Sutherland/moringa/cultivat/cult.htm

6.02

'Seeds require little or no pretreatment prior to germination with viability rates for fresh seeds having been reported to be up to 80% reducing to approximately 50% after 12 months storage. '

http://www.le.ac.uk/engineering/staff/Sutherland/moringa/cultivat/cult.htm

6.03

[no information on natural hybridization](1) 'There is also the potential for the hybridization of M.oleifera with other members of the same family. Moringa stenopetala Cufod. (M.stenopetala) has been shown to contain flocculating agents that show a high homology to those in M.oleifera. ' (2)F1 meiosis was normal, and pollen and seed fertility was good.

(1)http://www.le.ac.uk/engineering/staff/Sutherland/moringa/cultivat/cult.htm (2) Dogra, P. D.; Pal, A.; Tandon, S. 1975. Studies on breeding systems in Moringa. 3. Fruit-, seed-set and seed germination in two flowering periods of one year of the Baramassi Moringa oleifera and chromosomal pairing in the F1 hybrid from M. oleifera X M. concanensis. Incompatibility Newsletter 6:46-51.

6.04

(1)highly cross-pollinated due to heteromorphism (2)Both geitonogamous and xenogamous pollinations produce fruit, but the latter mode is superior

(1)http://www.icraf.cgiar.org/treessd/AFT/cfm/SpeciesInfo.cfm?SpID=1169 (2)JYOTHI-P-V {a}; ATLURI-J-B; REDDI-C-S. 1990. POLLINATION ECOLOGY OF MORINGA-OLEIFERA MORINGACEAE. Proceedings-of-the-Indian-Academy-of-Sciences-Plant-Sciences. 100 (1): 33-42.

6.05

(1) 'Both geitonogamous and xenogamous pollinations produce fruit, but the latter mode is superior. The flowers are zygomorphic and gullet type. ...Bees are the dominant foragers, of which Xylocopa and Amegilla carry pollen on the head and/or thorax to effect nototribic pollination. Xylocopa was more frequent and proved to be the major pollinator.' (2)The carpenter bees (Xylocopa latipes and X. pubescens) have been found the most reliable and appropriate pollinators. Sunbirds Nectaria zeylanica and N. asiatica have also been observed to be active pollinators.

(1)JYOTHI-P-V {a}; ATLURI-J-B; REDDI-C-S. 1990. POLLINATION ECOLOGY OF MORINGA-OLEIFERA MORINGACEAE. Proceedings-of-the-Indian-Academy-of-Sciences-Plant-Sciences. 100 (1): 33-42. (2)http://www.icraf.cgiar.org/treessd/AFT/cfm/SpeciesInfo.cfm?SpID=1169

6.06

Doesn't naturally spread by fragments

6.07

(1)In addition, first fruits may be expected within 6-12 months of planting out.[seeds need several months beyond this to mature] (2)Plants raised from 1 m cuttings bear pods from the second year of growth onwards

(1)http://www.le.ac.uk/engineering/staff/Sutherland/moringa/cultivat/cult.htm (2)http://agrss.sherman.hawaii.edu/onfarm/tree/tree0012.html

7.01

Probably not as the propagules do not have any means of attachment.

7.02

Probably yes as the tree has is valued for many utility purposes such as food and medicine.

http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Moringa_oleifera.html#Uses

7.03

Probably not as the seed size is relatively large and seeds are winged.

http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Moringa_oleifera.html#Uses

7.04

'Fully mature, dried seeds are round or triangular shaped, the kernel surrounded by a lightly wooded shell with three papery wings.

http://www.le.ac.uk/engineering/staff/Sutherland/moringa/general/general.htm

7.05

Readily colonizes stream banks and savannah areas where the soils are well drained and the water table remains fairly high all the year round. [seeds might float?]

http://www.icraf.cgiar.org/treessd/AFT/cfm/SpeciesInfo.cfm?SpID=1169

7.06

no adaptation to birds

7.07

no evidence, unlikely (possibly chewed by rodents?)

7.08

unlikely, doesn't have a tough seed coat, no evidence of animal dispersal.

8.01

(1)pods pendulous, brown, triangular, splitting lengthwise into 3 parts when dry, 30–120 cm long, 1.8 cm wide, containing about 20 seeds embedded in the pith, pod tapering at both ends, 9-ribbed; seeds dark brown, with 3 papery wings. (2) Depending on the variety, the extent of fertilization and other factors, a single tree may produce between 400 and 1000 pods annually.

(1)http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Moringa_oleifera.html#Uses (2)http://www.le.ac.uk/engineering/staff/Sutherland/moringa/cultivat/cult.htm

8.02

(1)the seed has a short period of viability (2) Viability decreased progressively over 12 months, reaching 4-14%. [lab conditions] (3)Storing seeds for 2 months or more was detrimental.

Mughal, M. H.; Gayoor Ali; Srivastava, P. S.; Muhammad Iqbal 1999. Improvement of drumstick (Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn.) - a unique source of food and medicine through tissue culture. Hamdard Medicus, 42: 37-42. (2) Palanisamy, V.; Balakrishnan, K.; Karivaratharaju, T. V.; Arumugam, R. 1995. Influence of seed treatments and containers on the viability of annual moringa seeds. South Indian Horticulture 43:42-43. (3) Verma, S. C. 1973. Studies on the factors affecting seed germination of Moringa. Plant Science 5:64-70.

8.03

No evidence that the species is being controlled for.

8.04

(1) 'sends out new growth rapidly after repeated severe pruning' (2)Constant pruning of up to 1.5 m/year is suggested

(1)http://www.le.ac.uk/engineering/staff/Sutherland/moringa/cultivat/cult.htm (2)http://www.icraf.cgiar.org/treessd/AFT/cfm/SpeciesInfo.cfm?SpID=1169

8.05

Don’t know.


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This page updated 5 March 2005