Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Melaleuca nesophila


RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTS: High risk, score: 8


Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawai‘i.
Information on Risk Assessments
Original risk assessment

Melaleuca nesophila F. Muell Family - Myrtaceae . Common Names(s) - (mauve honey-myrtle). Synonym(s) - .

Answer

Score

1.01

Is the species highly domesticated?

y=-3, n=0

n

0

1.02

Has the species become naturalized where grown?

y=1, n=-1

1.03

Does the species have weedy races?

y=-1, n=-1

2.01

Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) – If island is primarily wet habitat, then substitute “wet tropical” for “tropical or subtropical”

See Append 2

2

2.02

Quality of climate match data (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) see appendix 2

2

2.03

Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility)

y=1, n=0

n

0

2.04

Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climates

y=1, n=0

n

0

2.05

Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range?

y=-2, ?=-1, n=0

y

3.01

Naturalized beyond native range y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2), n= question 2.05

y

2

3.02

Garden/amenity/disturbance weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

3.03

Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

3.04

Environmental weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

y

4

3.05

Congeneric weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

y

2

4.01

Produces spines, thorns or burrs

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.02

Allelopathic

y=1, n=0

4.03

Parasitic

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.04

Unpalatable to grazing animals

y=1, n=-1

4.05

Toxic to animals

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.06

Host for recognized pests and pathogens

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.07

Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.08

Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems

y=1, n=0

4.09

Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.10

Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions if not a volcanic island)

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.11

Climbing or smothering growth habit

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.12

Forms dense thickets

y=1, n=0

y

1

5.01

Aquatic

y=5, n=0

n

0

5.02

Grass

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.03

Nitrogen fixing woody plant

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.04

Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs, corms, or tubers)

y=1, n=0

n

0

6.01

Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat

y=1, n=0

n

0

6.02

Produces viable seed.

y=1, n=-1

y

1

6.03

Hybridizes naturally

y=1, n=-1

6.04

Self-compatible or apomictic

y=1, n=-1

6.05

Requires specialist pollinators

y=-1, n=0

n

0

6.06

Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation

y=1, n=-1

6.07

Minimum generative time (years) 1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 4+ years = -1

See left

2 or 3

0

7.01

Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked areas)

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.02

Propagules dispersed intentionally by people

y=1, n=-1

y

1

7.03

Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.04

Propagules adapted to wind dispersal

y=1, n=-1

y

1

7.05

Propagules water dispersed

y=1, n=-1

y

1

7.06

Propagules bird dispersed

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.07

Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally)

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.08

Propagules survive passage through the gut

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

8.01

Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)

y=1, n=-1

8.02

Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)

y=1, n=-1

8.03

Well controlled by herbicides

y=-1, n=1

8.04

Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire

y=1, n=-1

8.05

Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)

y=-1, n=1

Total score:

8

Supporting data:

Notes

Source

1.01

No evidence of species being highly domesticated. 1) M. nesophila is one of the most widely cultivated members of the genus.

(1) http://asgap.org.au/m-nes.html

1.02

1.03

2.01

(1) Native to Western Australia

(1) http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?23815

2.02

(1) Native to Western Australia

(1) http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?23815

2.03

(1) USDA Hardiness Zones: 9a - 11

http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/31991/ [cited 2008 Sep 30]

2.04

(1) Native to Western Australia

(1) http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?23815

2.05

(1) Available from Heyne's Garden Center. (2) Available from Nativegrowth.com. (3) M. nesophila has been grown in Kenya the Kiambu District

(1)http://www.heyne.com.au/gardencentre/plantlists/plantlist_range_cat.php?search=AustShrubsTrees&ProductType2=AustralianNatives (2) http://nativegrowth.com.au/New_Shop/index.php?main_page=advanced_search_result&keyword=melaleuca&sort=20a&page=2 (3) http://www.aluka.org/action/showMetadata?doi=10.5555/AL.AP.FLORA.FTEA005018&pgs= [cited 2008 Sep 30].

3.01

(1) M. nesophila is considered to be a serious threat to one or more vegetation formations in Victoria, Australia.

(1) Carr, G.W., Yugovic, J.V. and Robinson, K.E. 1992. Environmental Weed Invasions in Victoria Conservation and Management Implications. Victoria. Department of Conservation and Environment. 78 p.

3.02

(1) In Toquay England spreads easily from gardens to roadsides and reserves. Have the ability to displace native vegetation.

(1) http://www.surfcoast.vic.gov.au/weed_booklet/weeds_window.php?id=18 [cited 2008 Sep 30].

3.03

Don't know

3.04

(1) M. nesophila is considered to be a serious threat to one or more vegetation formations in Victoria, Australia.

(1) Carr, G.W., Yugovic, J.V. and Robinson, K.E. 1992. Environmental Weed Invasions in Victoria Conservation and Management Implications. Victoria. Department of Conservation and Environment. 78 p.

3.05

(1) Melaleuca quinquenervia is a notorious invasive weed that threatens the biological integrity of Florida's Everglades ecosystems. (2) Cited on Pier.org to be invasive in Hawaii, Micronesia, and Palau.

(1) Dray, F.A. Jr., B.C. Bradley, T.D. Center. 2006. Invasion history of Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake in Florida. Castanea Vol 71 (3):210-225. (2) http://www.hear.org/Pier/species/melaleuca_quinquenervia.htm

4.01

(1) No spines, thorns, or burrs.

(1) Bodkin, F. 1986. The Encyclopaedia Botanica. The Essential Guide to Native and Exotic Plants in Australia, Angus & Robertson Publishers. Australia

4.02

Don't know

4.03

(1) not listed as a parasitic plant in database

(1) http://www.omnisterra.com/bot/pp_home.cgi

4.04

Unknown

4.05

No evidence of toxicity.

 

4.06

No evidence in pathogen database.

(1) http://fppd.cbio.psu.edu/ [Cited 2008 Oct 2]. (2) http://pnwfungi.wsu.edu/programs/searchHostPerspective.asp [Cited 2008 Oct 2].

4.07

No evidence in primary literature, Toxnet or Pubmed.

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez (2) http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/

4.08

Don't know

4.09

(1) M. nesophylla prefers sun. (2) Prefers sunlight.

(1)http://www.fuf.net/tree_plantings/pages/V85h86.html [cited 2008 Sep 29] (2) http://www.geocities.com/jimclatfelter/melaleuc.html

4.10

(1) M. nesophila prefers medium alkaline soils, well-drained.

(1) Bodkin, F. 1986. The Encyclopaedia Botanica. The Essential Guide to Native and Exotic Plants in Australia, Angus & Robertson Publishers. Australia

4.11

(1) Large shrub

(1) http://asgap.org.au/m-nes.html

4.12

(1) Forms dense thickets.

(1) http://www.surfcoast.vic.gov.au/weed_booklet/weeds_window.php?id=18 [cited 2008 Sep 30].

5.01

Terrestrial

5.02

Myrtaceae

5.03

(1) The genus Melaleuca does not fix nitrogen.

(1) http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Nitrogen-fixation

5.04

(1) Large shrub

(1) http://asgap.org.au/m-nes.html

6.01

No evidence of reproductive failure.

 

6.02

(1) Propagation is easy from seed.

(1) http://asgap.org.au/m-nes.html

6.03

Don't know

6.04

Don't know

6.05

(1) Melaleucas have hermaphrodite flwers and are pollinated mainly by insects but also small mammals and birds.

(1) CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

6.06

Don't know

 

6.07

(1) fast growing shrub. (2) Fast growing

(1) http://www.surfcoast.vic.gov.au/weed_booklet/weeds_common.php (2) http://webpages.charter.net/mrtopiary/pages/plantlist.htm

7.01

No evidence of plants growing in heavily trafficked areas.

 

7.02

(1) Chris Topiary Nursery in Riverside, CA sells M. nesophila. (2) B&T World Seeds sells M. nesophila

(1) http://webpages.charter.net/mrtopiary/pages/plantlist.htm (2) http://www.b-and-t-world-seeds.com/carth.asp?species=Melaleuca%20nesophila&sref=16271

7.03

Propagules not likely to disperse as a product contaminant.

 

7.04

(1) Seeds are wind-dispersed. (2) Seeds are wind-dispersed.

(1) http://www.surfcoast.vic.gov.au/weed_booklet/weeds_window.php?id=18 [cited 2008 Sep 30]. (2) Carr, G.W., Yugovic, J.V. and Robinson, K.E. 1992. Environmental Weed Invasions in Victoria Conservation and Management Implications. Victoria. Department of Conservation and Environment. 78 p.

7.05

(1) Seeds are adapted to water dispersal. (2) Seeds are water dispersed.

(1) http://www.surfcoast.vic.gov.au/weed_booklet/weeds_window.php?id=18 [cited 2008 Sep 30]. (2) Carr, G.W., Yugovic, J.V. and Robinson, K.E. 1992. Environmental Weed Invasions in Victoria Conservation and Management Implications. Victoria. Department of

7.06

(1) Seed is a capsule

(1) Bodkin, F. 1986. The Encyclopaedia Botanica. The Essential Guide to Native and Exotic Plants in Australia, Angus & Robertson Publishers. Australia

7.07

(1) Seed is a capsule

(1) Bodkin, F. 1986. The Encyclopaedia Botanica. The Essential Guide to Native and Exotic Plants in Australia, Angus & Robertson Publishers. Australia

7.08

(1) Seed is a capsule

(1) Bodkin, F. 1986. The Encyclopaedia Botanica. The Essential Guide to Native and Exotic Plants in Australia, Angus & Robertson Publishers. Australia

8.01

Don't know

8.02

Don't know (1) Seed capsule can persist for years beneath tree.

(1) http://www.geocities.com/jimclatfelter/melaleuc.html

8.03

Don't know

8.04

Don't know

8.05

Don't know


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This page created 13 December 2008