Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Melaleuca incana var. protrata


RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTS: Low risk, score: 0


Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawai‘i.
Information on Risk Assessments
Original risk assessment
  Melaleuca incana var. prostrata (prostrate gray honey myrtle) Synonym Melaleuca polygaloides Schauera Answer Score
1.01 Is the species highly domesticated? n 0
1.02 Has the species become naturalized where grown? n  
1.03 Does the species have weedy races? n  
2.01 Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) – If island is primarily wet habitat, then substitute “wet tropical” for “tropical or subtropical” 2  
2.02 Quality of climate match data (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high)                 see appendix 2 2  
2.03 Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility)    
2.04 Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climates y 1
2.05 Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range?  y=-2 ?  
3.01 Naturalized beyond native range         y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2), n= question 2.05 n -1
3.02 Garden/amenity/disturbance weed                              y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2) n 0
3.03 Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed                         y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2) n 0
3.04 Environmental weed                                                     y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2) n 0
3.05 Congeneric weed                                                          y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2) y 2
4.01 Produces spines, thorns or burrs n 0
4.02 Allelopathic n 0
4.03 Parasitic n 0
4.04 Unpalatable to grazing animals    
4.05 Toxic to animals n 0
4.06 Host for recognized pests and pathogens n 0
4.07 Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans n 0
4.08 Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems    
4.09 Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle y 1
4.1 Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions if not a volcanic island) y 1
4.11 Climbing or smothering growth habit n 0
4.12 Forms dense thickets y 1
5.01 Aquatic n 0
5.02 Grass n 0
5.03 Nitrogen fixing woody plant n 0
5.04 Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs, corms, or tubers) n 0
6.01 Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat n 0
6.02 Produces viable seed.    
6.03 Hybridizes naturally n -1
6.04 Self-compatible or apomictic    
6.05 Requires specialist pollinators n 0
6.06 Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation n -1
6.07 Minimum generative time (years)                 1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 4+ years = -1   0
7.01 Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked areas) n -1
7.02 Propagules dispersed intentionally by people y 1
7.03 Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant n -1
7.04 Propagules adapted to wind dispersal    
7.05 Propagules water dispersed    
7.06 Propagules bird dispersed n -1
7.07 Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally) n -1
7.08 Propagules survive passage through the gut n -1
8.01 Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)    
8.02 Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)    
8.03 Well controlled by herbicides    
8.04 Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire y 1
8.05 Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)    
  Total score:   0

Supporting data:

  Notes Reference
1.01 No evidence  
1.02 No evidence  
1.03 No evidence  
2.01 Native to Western Australia. http://72.14.207.104/search=cache:PFKphry_h3YJ:
www.elnativogrowers.com/SpecialtyPamphletsPDFs/
http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:PFKphry_h3YJ:www.elnativogrowers.com/SpecialtyPamphletsPDFs/SmallPamphlets/melincpr_smallpamphlet.pdf+Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1"> SmallPamphlets/melincpr_smallpamphlet.pdf+
http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:PFKphry_h3YJ:www.elnativogrowers.com/SpecialtyPamphletsPDFs/SmallPamphlets/melincpr_smallpamphlet.pdf+Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1"> Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1
2.02    
2.03 No evidence regarding environmental versatility.  
2.04 Native to Western Australia. http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:PFKphry_h3YJ:
www.elnativogrowers.com/SpecialtyPamphletsPDFs/
SmallPamphlets/melincpr_smallpamphlet.pdf+
Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1
2.05    
3.01 No evidence  
3.02 No evidence  
3.03 No evidence  
3.04 No evidence  
3.05 (1)Melaleuca quinquenervia -  This tall tree, native to Eastern Australia, New Guinea and New Caledonia, invades open swampy areas. (2)M. quinquenervia is invasive in the mesic forests of Hawaii and a serious pest in Florida Everglades. (1)http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=45&fr=1&sts=sss  (2)Motooka, Philip, Castro Luisa, Nelson Duane, Nagai Guy and Ching Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. University of Hawaii at Manoa. Page 36
4.01 No description of this trait. http://www.anbg.gov.au/gnp/gnp1/melaleuca-incana.html
4.02 No evidence  
4.03 No evidence  
4.04 Don’t know  
4.05 No evidence  
4.06 No evidence of associated pests or pathogens of economic importance. (1)http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/index.cfm  (2)
4.07 No evidence  
4.08 Malelueca species are are considered to be undesirable in the landscape due to characteristics that make them highly flammable. [However this is a prostrate variety]. http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:4n6WDzRHTTcJ:
www.santabarbaraca.gov/NR/rdonlyres/FBAB7E7B-E2EE-42D3-9E0E-21BD1E532D36/0/hfh_landscape_guidelines.pdf+%22
Melaleuca+species%22+fire&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=2
4.09 (1)Exposure: Sun/Partial Sun  (2)Full sun to part shade. Easy to grow sun or part shade. (1)http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:PFKphry_h3YJ:
www.elnativogrowers.com/SpecialtyPamphletsPDFs/
http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:PFKphry_h3YJ:www.elnativogrowers.com/SpecialtyPamphletsPDFs/SmallPamphlets/melincpr_smallpamphlet.pdf+Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1"> SmallPamphlets/melincpr_smallpamphlet.pdf+
Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1  (2)http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:CW65w_-prN4J:www.co.san-diego.ca.us/ctn/pdf/DecemberSlopePlants.pdf+
Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=11
4.1 (1)Most nurseries stock this species, and most soils are suitable, especially lighter ones. [Characteristic of M. incana].  (2)M. incana can survive in saline and waterlogged conditions. (2)Drew. R. (Ed). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Harnessing the Potential of Horticulture in the Asia-Pacific Region. Pages 445-447.
4.11 (1)M. incana ‘Prostrata’, a selection ofM.incana, is an excellent groundcover . (2)Photograh of plant  (3)A trailing form of a normally 9’ tall plant, that lays flat on the ground with blue-gray finely textured foliage.Great spilling over a wall (1)http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:PFKphry_h3YJ:
www.elnativogrowers.com/SpecialtyPamphletsPDFs/
http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:PFKphry_h3YJ:www.elnativogrowers.com/SpecialtyPamphletsPDFs/SmallPamphlets/melincpr_smallpamphlet.pdf+Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1"> SmallPamphlets/melincpr_smallpamphlet.pdf+
Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1  (2)http://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_page/melincpr.htm (3)http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:CW65w_-prN4J:www.co.san-diego.ca.us/ctn/pdf/DecemberSlopePlants.pdf+
Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=11
4.12  'It is particularly common in the swamps south of Perth and oftern forms dense thickets but extends from the Moore River to Albany.' [Characterestic of species - M. polygaloides/incana]. Ericson, R, Geroge, A.S., Marchant, N.G. and Morcombe, M.K. 1973. Flowers and Plants of Western Australia. A.H. and A.W. Reed. Auckland. Page 30.
5.01    
5.02 (1)M. incana ‘Prostrata’, a selection ofM.incana, is an excellent groundcover . (2)Photograh of plant  (3)A trailing form of a normally 9’ tall plant, that lays flat on the ground with blue-gray finely textured foliage.Great spilling over a wall (1)http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:PFKphry_h3YJ:
www.elnativogrowers.com/SpecialtyPamphletsPDFs/
http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:PFKphry_h3YJ:www.elnativogrowers.com/SpecialtyPamphletsPDFs/SmallPamphlets/melincpr_smallpamphlet.pdf+Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1"> SmallPamphlets/melincpr_smallpamphlet.pdf+
Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1  (2)http://www.elnativogrowers.com/Photographs_page/melincpr.htm (3)http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:CW65w_-prN4J:www.co.san-diego.ca.us/ctn/pdf/DecemberSlopePlants.pdf+
Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=11
5.03    
5.04    
6.01  'It is particularly common in the swamps south of Perth and oftern forms dense thickets but extends from the Moore River to Albany. The flowers are usually yellow cram, in spikes up to 5 cm long and the leaves are 1.5 cm long' [Characterestic of species - M. polygaloides/incana]. Ericson, R, Geroge, A.S., Marchant, N.G. and Morcombe, M.K. 1973. Flowers and Plants of Western Australia. A.H. and A.W. Reed. Auckland.
6.02 Small woody seed capsules follow and remain on the shrub some years, yielding plentiful seed for easy propagation. [Based on characteristic of M. incana and not the prostrata variety] http://www.anbg.gov.au/gnp/gnp1/melaleuca-incana.html
6.03 Probably not - no evidence of hybridization in this genus.  
6.04 Don’t know  
6.05 Probably not - photo of flowers does not suggest adaptation to specialist pollinators.  
6.06 No evidence of spread by vegetative means.  
6.07 No evidence regarding time to flowering or growth rate.  
7.01 Small woody seed capsules follow and remain on the shrub some years, yielding plentiful seed for easy propagation. [Characteristic of M. incana]. No evidence that the propagules are sticky or have any means of attachment. http://www.anbg.gov.au/gnp/gnp1/melaleuca-incana.html
7.02 Probably yes - recognized as 'Attractive foliage plant'. http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:PFKphry_h3YJ:
www.elnativogrowers.com/SpecialtyPamphletsPDFs/
http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:PFKphry_h3YJ:www.elnativogrowers.com/SpecialtyPamphletsPDFs/SmallPamphlets/melincpr_smallpamphlet.pdf+Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1"> SmallPamphlets/melincpr_smallpamphlet.pdf+
http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:PFKphry_h3YJ:www.elnativogrowers.com/SpecialtyPamphletsPDFs/SmallPamphlets/melincpr_smallpamphlet.pdf+Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1"> Melaleuca+incana+prostrata&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1
7.03 Probably not - no evidence that the species grows near produce/seed crops.  
7.04 Probably  disperse by gravity - no evidence of adaptation for dispersal by wind. - 'Small woody seed capsules follow and remain on the shrub some years, yielding plentiful seed for easy propagation. ' [No evidence of seed size - if seeds are relatively small such as in M. quniquinerva then possible dispersed by wind] http://www.anbg.gov.au/gnp/gnp1/melaleuca-incana.html
7.05 No evidence - but the species is adpated to swampy habitats. Ericson, R, Geroge, A.S., Marchant, N.G. and Morcombe, M.K. 1973. Flowers and Plants of Western Australia. A.H. and A.W. Reed. Auckland. Page 30.
7.06 Probably not -  'Small woody seed capsules follow and remain on the shrub some years, yielding plentiful seed for easy propagation. ' [Characteristic of M. incana] http://www.anbg.gov.au/gnp/gnp1/melaleuca-incana.html
7.07 Probably not - no evidence that the propagules have any means of attachment. 'Small woody seed capsules follow and remain on the shrub some years, yielding plentiful seed for easy propagation. ' [Characteristic of M. incana] http://www.anbg.gov.au/gnp/gnp1/melaleuca-incana.html
7.08 No evidence regarding ingestion of fruits or seeds by animals.  
8.01 No evidence regarding seed size and number.  
8.02 Small woody seed capsules follow and remain on the shrub some years, yielding plentiful seed for easy propagation. [Characteristic of M. incana. Probably yes but did not answer due to lack of a direct evidence regarding seedbank characteristics.] http://www.anbg.gov.au/gnp/gnp1/melaleuca-incana.html
8.03 No evidence that the species is being controlled for.  
8.04 Pruning and decorating may be combined as both flowers and foliage are pleasant and easy to arrange, lasting well in water even as long sprays. An established plant may be cut freely. [M. incana characteristic].  
8.05 Don’t know  

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This page created 23 December 2006