Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Melaleuca bracteata


RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTS: High risk, score: 10


Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawai‘i.
Information on Risk Assessments
Original risk assessment

Melaleuca bracteata F. Muell. Family - Myrtaceae. Common Names(s) - River tea-tree, black tea-tree, white cloud tree, prickly-leaved tea-tree, bracteate honey-myrtle. Synonym(s) - Melaleuca genistifolia auct. Melaleuca monticola J. M. Black.

Answer

Score

1.01

Is the species highly domesticated?

y=-3, n=0

n

0

1.02

Has the species become naturalized where grown?

y=1, n=-1

1.03

Does the species have weedy races?

y=-1, n=-1

2.01

Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) – If island is primarily wet habitat, then substitute “wet tropical” for “tropical or subtropical”

See Append 2

2

2.02

Quality of climate match data (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) see appendix 2

2

2.03

Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility)

y=1, n=0

y

1

2.04

Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climates

y=1, n=0

y

1

2.05

Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range?

y=-2, ?=-1, n=0

y

3.01

Naturalized beyond native range y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2), n= question 2.05

3.02

Garden/amenity/disturbance weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

3.03

Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

3.04

Environmental weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

3.05

Congeneric weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

y

2

4.01

Produces spines, thorns or burrs

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.02

Allelopathic

y=1, n=0

4.03

Parasitic

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.04

Unpalatable to grazing animals

y=1, n=-1

4.05

Toxic to animals

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.06

Host for recognized pests and pathogens

y=1, n=0

4.07

Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.08

Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems

y=1, n=0

y

1

4.09

Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.10

Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions if not a volcanic island)

y=1, n=0

y

1

4.11

Climbing or smothering growth habit

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.12

Forms dense thickets

y=1, n=0

y

1

5.01

Aquatic

y=5, n=0

n

0

5.02

Grass

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.03

Nitrogen fixing woody plant

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.04

Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs, corms, or tubers)

y=1, n=0

n

0

6.01

Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat

y=1, n=0

n

0

6.02

Produces viable seed.

y=1, n=-1

y

1

6.03

Hybridizes naturally

y=1, n=-1

6.04

Self-compatible or apomictic

y=1, n=-1

6.05

Requires specialist pollinators

y=-1, n=0

n

0

6.06

Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation

y=1, n=-1

y

1

6.07

Minimum generative time (years) 1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 4+ years = -1

See left

2+

0

7.01

Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked areas)

y=1, n=-1

y

1

7.02

Propagules dispersed intentionally by people

y=1, n=-1

y

1

7.03

Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.04

Propagules adapted to wind dispersal

y=1, n=-1

y

1

7.05

Propagules water dispersed

y=1, n=-1

y

1

7.06

Propagules bird dispersed

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.07

Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally)

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.08

Propagules survive passage through the gut

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

8.01

Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)

y=1, n=-1

y

1

8.02

Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)

y=1, n=-1

8.03

Well controlled by herbicides

y=-1, n=1

y

-1

8.04

Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire

y=1, n=-1

y

1

8.05

Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)

y=-1, n=1

Total score:

10

Supporting data:

Notes

Source

1.01

(1)No evidence

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

1.02

1.03

2.01

(1)M. bracteata is typically a large shrub or small bushy tree 5-10 m tall. In particularly favourable situations in eastern Queensland it may reach over 20 m tall but in the harsh environment of the arid zone it may be only 2-3 m tall and of very bushy habit. It has one of the widest distributions of the genus in Australia and occurs in several climatic zones including warm sub-humid and warm humid in the south east and hot semi-arid and warm arid in the northern and central part.

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

2.02

2.03

(1) It has one of the widest distributions of the genus in Australia and occurs in several climatic zones including warm sub-humid and warm humid in the south east and hot semi-arid and warm arid in the northern and central part. It is drought and frost tolerant and will grow in a range of soil types including those affected by salinity and alkalinity.

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

2.04

(1)M. bracteata is typically a large shrub or small bushy tree 5-10 m tall. In particularly favourable situations in eastern Queensland it may reach over 20 m tall but in the harsh environment of the arid zone it may be only 2-3 m tall and of very bushy habit. It has one of the widest distributions of the genus in Australia and occurs in several climatic zones including warm sub-humid and warm humid in the south east and hot semi-arid and warm arid in the northern and central part.

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

2.05

(1)China planted India planted     Andhra Pradesh planted    Gujarat planted     Haryana planted     Karnataka planted     Uttar Pradesh planted Israel planted Laos planted Malaysia planted Sarawak planted Pakistan planted Philippines planted Sri Lanka planted Thailand planted Vietnam planted Africa Ethiopia planted Kenya planted Sudan planted Zambia planted Zimbabwe planted Central America & Caribbean Cuba planted Oceania [Australia]     Australian Northern Territory natural and planted     New South Wales natural and planted     Queensland natural and planted     South Australia natural Western Australia natural and planted Vanuatu planted

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

3.01

[Unclear whether species has naturalized outside of native range, or if acting as a weed within native or introduced range (See 3.02)] (1)It can be found on rugged to undulating and moderately hill country and in some areas it also extends to the plains. It is often found around waterholes and along watercourses and may be confined to them in arid areas. It is a potential weed on some sites. (2)Mulvaney, M.J. (1991). Far from the Garden Path: An Identikit Picture of Woody Ornamanetal Plants Invading South-Eastern Australian Bushland. PhD Thesis. Dept. Biogeography and Geomorphology, Research School of Pacific Studies. Australian National University [listed as a weed in Australia with no information about impacts found] (3)Invasive Root Species - Plants which can cause drainage problems if planted too close to drains or foundations. (4)Its free-seeding and suckering habit combined with its tolerance of a wide range of soil conditions make it a potential weed species.

(1)http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropView?id=7669 [Accessed 23 Mar 2009] (2)http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/melaleuca_bracteata/ [Accessed 23 Mar 2009] (3)http://www.qld.greeningaustralia.org.au/gaqotsasp/07_plant_search/
features.asp?SpeciesName=Melaleuca%20bracteata [Accessed 24 Mar 2009] (4)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

3.02

(1)It can be found on rugged to undulating and moderately hill country and in some areas it also extends to the plains. It is often found around waterholes and along watercourses and may be confined to them in arid areas. It is a potential weed on some sites. (2)Mulvaney, M.J. (1991). Far from the Garden Path: An Identikit Picture of Woody Ornamanetal Plants Invading South-Eastern Australian Bushland. PhD Thesis. Dept. Biogeography and Geomorphology, Research School of Pacific Studies. Australian National University [listed as a weed in Australia with no information about impacts found] (3)Invasive Root Species - Plants which can cause drainage problems if planted too close to drains or foundations. (4)Its free-seeding and suckering habit combined with its tolerance of a wide range of soil conditions make it a potential weed species.

(1)http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropView?id=7669 [Accessed 23 Mar 2009] (2)http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/melaleuca_bracteata/ [Accessed 23 Mar 2009] (3)http://www.qld.greeningaustralia.org.au/gaqotsasp/07_plant_search/
features.asp?SpeciesName=Melaleuca%20bracteata [Accessed 24 Mar 2009] (4)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

3.03

(1)Not listed as a weed of agriculture or forestry

(1)http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/melaleuca_bracteata/ [Accessed 23 Mar 2009]

3.04

(1)Not listed as an environmental weed

(1)http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/melaleuca_bracteata/ [Accessed 23 Mar 2009]

3.05

(1)Melaleuca quinquenervia…Where invasive it rapidly colonizes freshwater wetlands and almost completely displaces the native vegetation, thereby degrading prime wildlife habitat. [weed of natural areas in Southeastern USA and Caribbean]

(1)Weber, E. 2003. Invasive Plants of the World: A Reference Guide to Environmental Weeds. CABI Publishing.Oxford, UK.

4.01

(1)No spines, thorns, or burrs

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

4.02

(1)Abstract The leaf oil components of six Melaleuca species were analyzed. M. symphyocarpa had a higher content of 1,8-cineole and M. bracteata contained large amounts of phenyl propanoids, while the other species had oils which contained complex mixture of mono- and sesquiterpenes. The leaf oil of M. bracteata exhibited the strongest miticidal activity against European house-dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus). It also had the strongest germination and growth-inhibition activity against radish seeds. [no evidence found from field settings]

(1)Yatagai, M., T. Ohira and K. Nakashima. 1998. Composition, miticidal activity and growth regulation extract on radish seeds of extracts from Melaleuca species. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 26: 713-722.

4.03

(1)M. bracteata is typically a large shrub or small bushy tree 5-10 m tall.

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

4.04

(1)Livestock fodder Melaleuca and other plants [other species of Melaleuca can be used for fodder, but no information found on M. bracteata]

(1)http://cantho.cool.ne.jp/mekong/melaleuca/mela_e.html [Accessed 24 Mar 2009]

4.05

(1)Not listed as toxic to animals

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

4.06

(1)Abstract Recordings of ornamentals infected by P. cinnamomi, P. nicotianae var. parasitica, P. palmivora, P, megasperma var. megasperma and undetermined P. spp. are tabulated. Most are from nursery stock but field records are also included. Results of pathogenicity tests are indicated for some isolates [not listed as an important alternate host]

(1)Forsberg, L. 1985. Phytophthora Species on Ornamental Plants in Queensland. Australasian Plant Pathology 14: 18-20.

4.07

(1)No evidence of toxicity to humans

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

4.08

(1)Flammable vegetation (Medium Risk )

(1)http://www.soe-townsville.org/fire/BushFireHazardReport.pdf [Accessed 24 Mar 2009]

4.09

(1)Full sun (2)Habitats and Possible Locations Woodland, Sunny Edge. (3)Needs full, day sunlight.

(1)Llamas, K. A. 2003. Tropical Flowering Plants: A Guide to Identification and Cultivation. Timber Press. Portland, OR. (2)http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Melaleuca+bracteata [Accessed 20 Mar 2009] (3)Engel, D. H. and S. Phummai. 2002. A Field Guide to Tropical Plants of Asia. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

4.10

(1)will grow in a range of soil types including those affected by salinity and alkalinity… Soil descriptors
- Soil texture: medium; heavy
- Soil drainage: seasonally waterlogged
- Soil reaction: acid; neutral; alkaline
- Special soil tolerances: saline

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

4.11

(1)M. bracteata is typically a large shrub or small bushy tree 5-10 m tall.

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

4.12

(1)The dominant canopy species of this community is black tea-tree (Melaleuca bracteata) which is moderate to very dense. Scattered mimosa bush and sally wattle are also present within the community. The understorey of the community varies in density depending on the density of the canopy cover provided by the black tea-tree. Within the dense stands of black tea-tree, the understorey growth is restricted and consequently the ground layer is very sparse. [forms dense stands in natural settings in Australia]

(1)http://www.pb.com.au/clermonteis/Files/Volume%201/Clermont%20Section%2005%20Nature%20Conservation.pdf [Accessed 23 Mar 2009]

5.01

(1)M. bracteata is typically a large shrub or small bushy tree 5-10 m tall. [terrestrial]

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

5.02

(1)Myrtaceae

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

5.03

(1)Myrtaceae

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

5.04

(1)M. bracteata is typically a large shrub or small bushy tree 5-10 m tall.

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

6.01

(1)Its free-seeding and suckering habit combined with its tolerance of a wide range of soil conditions make it a potential weed species. [no evidence]

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

6.02

(1)Its free-seeding and suckering habit combined with its tolerance of a wide range of soil conditions make it a potential weed species.

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

6.03

(1)Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus [no other credible references found on hybridization of this species]

(1)http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Melaleuca+bracteata [Accessed 20 Mar 2009]

6.04

(1)Melaleuca trees are self-compatible and autogamous, but also are capable of outcrossing [info. on M. quinquenervia, but no information found for M. bracteata]

(1)RAYAMAJHI, M.B., T. K.VAN, T. D. CENTER, J. A. GOOLSBY, P. D. PRATT AND A. RACELIS. 2002. Biological Attributes of The Canopy held Melaleuca Seeds in Australia and Florida, U.S. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 40: 87-91.

6.05

(1)The scented flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. (2)Inflorescences (flowering parts) few- to many-flowered spikes 1.5-3.5 cm long; rachis pubescent (the stem of the spike is hairy). White flowers solitary or in threes within each bract. Petals more or less circular, 1.5-2 mm long.

(1)http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Melaleuca+bracteata [Accessed 20 Mar 2009] (2)http://www.saveourwaterwaysnow.com.au/01_cms/details_pop.asp?ID=206 [Accessed 23 Mar 2009]

6.06

(1)Its free-seeding and suckering habit combined with its tolerance of a wide range of soil conditions make it a potential weed species.

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

6.07

(1)Seed takes about 12 months to develop on the plant, the woody seed capsules persist for 3 or more years[200]. [fast growing woody tree, and seeds take a long time to mature (2)Fast grower (3)Growth rate Medium to fast Dense screening shrub with white flower spikes in summer.

(1)http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Melaleuca+bracteata [Accessed 23 Mar 2009] (2)Engel, D. H. and S. Phummai. 2002. A Field Guide to Tropical Plants of Asia. Timber Press, Portland, OR. (3)http://www.alicesprings.nt.gov.au/community/environment/recommended_native_plants/melaleuca_bracteata [Accessed 24 Mar 2009]

7.01

(1)It is frequently found growing on watercourses on rather heavy-textured deep clays. (2)Habitat: Banks of rivers and streams (3)Distribution and occurrence: Widespread, along watercourses or on heavier inland soils in depressions; north from the Macleay R. NSW subdivisions: NC, NT, NWS, NWP Other Australian states: Qld W.A. S.A. N.T (4)HABITAT Occurs in the northern part of the coverage area along watercourses, on floodplains, swampy areas, gilgais and open grassy downs, usually on heavy clay soils, but also on sandy and gravelly soils. (5)Fruit sub- (or nearly) globose, 2-3 mm in diameter, orifice around 2 mm in diameter, with sepals persistent.[small seeds in muddy habitats likely to spread unintentionally]

(1)Southwell, I. 2003. Tea Tree: The Genus Melaleuca. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida. (2)http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Melaleuca+bracteata [Accessed 20 Mar 2009] (3)http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Melaleuca~bracteata [Accessed 20 Mar 2009] (4)Eddie, C. 2007. Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs of Eastern Queensland Oil and Gas Fields. Santos Ltd, Adelaide, South Australia. (5)http://www.saveourwaterwaysnow.com.au/01_cms/details_pop.asp?ID=206 [Accessed 23 Mar 2009]

7.02

(1)Land use, environmental and service aspects Descriptors: land reclamation; erosion control; shelterbelts; windbreaks; hedges; amenity; ornamental

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

7.03

(1)No evidence of produce contamination [used mostly for essential oil industry]

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

7.04

(1)Fruit sub- (or nearly) globose, 2-3 mm in diameter, orifice around 2 mm in diameter, with sepals persistent. [small fruits and seeds likely adapted to wind dispersal]

(1)http://www.saveourwaterwaysnow.com.au/01_cms/details_pop.asp?ID=206 [Accessed 23 Mar 2009]

7.05

(1)It is frequently found growing on watercourses on rather heavy-textured deep clays. (2)Habitat: Banks of rivers and streams (3)Distribution and occurrence: Widespread, along watercourses or on heavier inland soils in depressions; north from the Macleay R. NSW subdivisions: NC, NT, NWS, NWP Other Australian states: Qld W.A. S.A. N.T (4)HABITAT Occurs in the northern part of the coverage area along watercourses, on floodplains, swampy areas, gilgais and open grassy downs, usually on heavy clay soils, but also on sandy and gravelly soils.

(1)Southwell, I. 2003. Tea Tree: The Genus Melaleuca. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida. (2)http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Melaleuca+bracteata [Accessed 20 Mar 2009] (3)http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Melaleuca~bracteata [Accessed 20 Mar 2009] (4)Eddie, C. 2007. Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs of Eastern Queensland Oil and Gas Fields. Santos Ltd, Adelaide, South Australia.

7.06

(1)Fruit sub- (or nearly) globose, 2-3 mm in diameter, orifice around 2 mm in diameter, with sepals persistent.

(1)http://www.saveourwaterwaysnow.com.au/01_cms/details_pop.asp?ID=206 [Accessed 23 Mar 2009]

7.07

(1)Fruit sub- (or nearly) globose, 2-3 mm in diameter, orifice around 2 mm in diameter, with sepals persistent. [no means of external attachment]

(1)http://www.saveourwaterwaysnow.com.au/01_cms/details_pop.asp?ID=206 [Accessed 23 Mar 2009]

7.08

(1)Fruit sub- (or nearly) globose, 2-3 mm in diameter, orifice around 2 mm in diameter, with sepals persistent. [no evidence of ingestion by animals]

(1)http://www.saveourwaterwaysnow.com.au/01_cms/details_pop.asp?ID=206 [Accessed 23 Mar 2009]

8.01

(1)Direct seeding is relatively cheap—1 kilogram of seed can contain up to 2 million seeds for small-seeded species such as Melaleuca bracteata. (2)Fruit sub- (or nearly) globose, 2-3 mm in diameter, orifice around 2 mm in diameter, with sepals persistent

(1)http://www.rivers.gov.au/library/scripts/2E6369E4-767E-4B26-A283-15F2F0547567.pdf [Accessed 23 Mar 2009] (2)http://www.saveourwaterwaysnow.com.au/01_cms/details_pop.asp?ID=206 [Accessed 23 Mar 2009]

8.02

(1)- Seed storage orthodox [no evidence from natural settings]

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

8.03

(1)detailed information about how to select herbicides to control Melaleuca quinquenervia.

(2) Herbicides are usually needed for extensive infestations and mature paperbark trees and may be applied to freshly cut stumps or to girdled trunks. However, as noted previously, herbicide use will cause paperbark tree to release large caches of stored seeds. [control information for related M. quinquenervia, so assuming that M. bracteata will react similarly]

(1)Criteria Used for the Selection of Herbicides on Melaleuca quinquenervia (Melaleuca). <http://www.wes.army.mil/el/aqua/apis/herbicides/html/criter15.html >

(2) Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group (August 1997). <http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/mequ1.htm>

8.04

(1)- Tolerates drought; waterlogging; frost - Ability to sucker; coppice

(1)CAB International, 2005. Forestry Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

8.05

Unknown


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