Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Medinilla magnifica


RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTS: High risk, score: 8


Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawai‘i.
Information on Risk Assessments
Original risk assessment

Medinilla magnifica Lindl. Family - Melastomatceae. Common Names(s) - chandelier tree, showy melastome, showy medinilla, Malaysian orchid medinilla, Malaysian orchid. Synonym(s) - NA.

Answer

Score

1.01

Is the species highly domesticated?

y=-3, n=0

n

0

1.02

Has the species become naturalized where grown?

y=-1, n=-1

1.03

Does the species have weedy races?

y=-1, n=-1

2.01

Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) – If island is primarily wet habitat, then substitute “wet tropical” for “tropical or subtropical”

See Append 2

2

2.02

Quality of climate match data (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) see appendix 2

2

2.03

Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility)

y=1, n=0

n

0

2.04

Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climates

y=1, n=0

y

1

2.05

Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range? y=-2

?=-1, n=0

y

3.01

Naturalized beyond native range y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2), n= question 2.05

 

y

2

3.02

Garden/amenity/disturbance weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

y

2

3.03

Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

3.04

Environmental weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

3.05

Congeneric weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

y

2

4.01

Produces spines, thorns or burrs

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.02

Allelopathic

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.03

Parasitic

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.04

Unpalatable to grazing animals

y=1, n=-1

4.05

Toxic to animals

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.06

Host for recognized pests and pathogens

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.07

Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.08

Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.09

Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle

y=1, n=0

y

1

4.1

Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions if not a volcanic island)

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.11

Climbing or smothering growth habit

y=1, n=0

4.12

Forms dense thickets

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.01

Aquatic

y=5, n=0

n

0

5.02

Grass

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.03

Nitrogen fixing woody plant

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.04

Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs, corms, or tubers)

y=1, n=0

n

0

6.01

Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat

y=1, n=0

n

0

6.02

Produces viable seed.

y=1, n=-1

y

1

6.03

Hybridizes naturally

y=1, n=-1

6.04

Self-compatible or apomictic

y=1, n=-1

6.05

Requires specialist pollinators

y=-1, n=0

n

0

6.06

Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

6.07

Minimum generative time (years) 1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 4+ years = -1

See left

2

0

7.01

Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked areas)

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.02

Propagules dispersed intentionally by people

y=1, n=-1

y

1

7.03

Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.04

Propagules adapted to wind dispersal

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.05

Propagules water dispersed

y=1, n=-1

7.06

Propagules bird dispersed

y=1, n=-1

y

1

7.07

Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally)

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.08

Propagules survive passage through the gut

y=1, n=-1

y

1

8.01

Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)

y=1, n=-1

y

1

8.02

Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)

y=1, n=-1

8.03

Well controlled by herbicides

y=-1, n=1

8.04

Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire

y=1, n=-1

8.05

Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)

y=-1, n=1

Total score:

8

Supporting data:

Notes

Source

1.01

No evidence

 

1.02

1.03

2.01

Country of Origin: Phillipines

http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/acc_num/198500277.html

2.02

2.03

(1)USDA Zone: 11-12 (2)Medinilla grows naturally at higher altitudes in its rainforest habitat, a minimum temperature of 65 degrees, Consistent high humidity is also essential (3)Requires high temperatures (18-27°C/64-80°F) during summer. In winter keep cooler (15-18°C/60-64°F), this allows the plant a rest period which is essential for further flowering. This plant requires high humidity

(1)http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/acc_num/198500277.html (2)http://www.mgonline.com/medinilla.html (3)http://www.flowers.org.uk/plants/plantfacts/medinilla.htm

2.04

Country of Origin: Phillipines

http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/acc_num/198500277.html

2.05

(1)Present on Pacific Islands? Yes (2)Magnifica/Myriantha is native to the Philippines where it grows more than 6 feet tall as an erect shrub. Far more common in USA gardens would be about 3 feet … Medinilla grows naturally at higher altitudes in its rainforest habitat. In many areas worldwide, this plant is grown in greenhouses.' (3)Widely cultivated

(1)http://mgonline.com/medinilla.html (2)http://mgonline.com/medinilla.html (3)Whistler, W.A. 2000. Tropical ornamentals. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

3.01

(1)Propagated by seed in Hawai‘i (Staples & Herbst 2005), with small fleshy fruits likely dispersed by birds, it has recently been discovered as naturalized on O‘ahu usually in wet, shaded gulches of the Ko‘olau, but 2 large plants were also reported near the Ko‘olau summit ridge in a gulch above Mänoa Falls. Known as an epiphytic plant, large individuals of this species often climb the surrounding vegetation, but smaller individuals were found sprouting from disturbed soil near pali headwalls or in Pandanus root buttresses.

(1)Frohlich, D. and A. Lau. 2006. New plant records from O‘ahu for 2006. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 96: 8-13.

3.02

Although the potential to invade native ecosystems exists, M. magnifica is scored as a disturbance weed since evidence of impacts on natural ecosystems is currently lacking. (1)Known as an epiphytic plant, large individuals of this species often climb the surrounding vegetation, but smaller individuals were found sprouting from disturbed soil near pali headwalls or in Pandanus root buttresses. Substantial effort by the O‘ahu Invasive Species Committee has been made to control naturalized populations on the island and further cultivation of this species in Hawai‘i should be discouraged.

(1)Frohlich, D. and A. Lau. 2006. New plant records from O‘ahu for 2006. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 96: 8-13.

3.03

No evidence

 

3.04

No evidence

http://www.hear.org/pier/species/medinilla_magnifica.htm

3.05

Medinilla venosa is listed as a noxious weed of Hawaii

http://www.prairiefrontier.com/pages/noxiousweeds1.html

4.01

No evidence

http://www.hear.org/pier/species/medinilla_magnifica.htm

4.02

No evidence

 

4.03

No evidence

 

4.04

Probably is palatable (epiphyte)

 

4.05

No evidence

 

4.06

This site lists the following fungi 3 fungi species to be associated with M. magnifica: Pestalotia medinillae: Brazil - 6889, 7129, Phytophthora sp.: FL - 1, Rhizoctonia sp.: FL - 1

http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/all/FindRecOneFungusFrame.cfm

4.07

It is also used as remedies for flesh wounds and upset stomachs.

http://www.arcbc.org/arcbcweb/ASEAN_Precious_plants/horticulture/Medinilla_magnifica.htm

4.08

Evergreen shrub or epiphyte. Habitat/ecology: Rain forest epiphyte

http://www.hear.org/pier/species/medinilla_magnifica.htm

4.09

(1)Enjoys a bright, warm position with no direct sunlight. (2)Partially shaded places are preferred

(1)http://www.flowers.org.uk/plants/plantfacts/medinilla.htm (2)Whistler, W.A. 2000. Tropical ornamentals. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

4.1

"In the tropical rainforest, Medinilla is virtually epiphytic, growing quite happily in the trees themselves. In the garden, it must have very loose, light, well-drained soil. "

http://www.baliadvertiser.biz/articles/gardening/2003/uncommon_shrubs.html

4.11

Not really viney, but could have potential to smother plants on which it grows. (1)Known as an epiphytic plant, large individuals of this species often climb the surrounding vegetation,

(1)Frohlich, D. and A. Lau. 2006. New plant records from O‘ahu for 2006. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 96: 8-13.

4.12

No evidence

 

5.01

This erect shrub to 6 ft (1.8 m) tall is usually found as an epiphyte in its Philippine homeland.

http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/acc_num/198500277.html

5.02

This erect shrub to 6 ft (1.8 m) tall is usually found as an epiphyte in its Philippine homeland.

http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/acc_num/198500277.html

5.03

Melastomaceae

http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/acc_num/198500277.html

5.04

This erect shrub to 6 ft (1.8 m) tall is usually found as an epiphyte in its Philippine homeland.

http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/acc_num/198500277.html

6.01

'This erect shrub to 6 ft (1.8 m) tall is usually found as an epiphyte in its Philippine homeland. Its stems may be ribbed or even winged and its rich glossy green leaves grow to about 12 in (30 cm) long and have obvious paler veins. Its small pink flowers are produced throughout spring and summer in long pendulous panicles to 18 in (45 cm); these are made even more obvious because of the large pink bracts attached to the flower clusters. '

http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/acc_num/198500277.html

6.02

Propagate from seed or cuttings.

http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/acc_num/198500277.html

6.03

No evidence

 

6.04

No evidence

 

6.05

They are "buzz" pollinated by bees gathering pollen.

http://botit.botany.wisc.edu:16080/courses/tour/Roomthree-Me.html

6.06

large sessile leaves [does not produce runners; rosette habitat]

http://allserv.rug.ac.be/~dvcammen/Greenhouse/medinilla.htm

6.07

perennial with tiny seeds [minimum estimate 2-3 but left blank because no 100% certain and it would affect 2nd screen]

http://www.flowers.org.uk/plants/plantfacts/medinilla.htm

7.01

Typically grown as an epiphyte or single plant low to the ground

Whistler, W.A. 2000. Tropical ornamentals. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

7.02

Medinilla is a valued ornamental grown as hedges or border plants in the tropics; grown in containers/pots in a greenhouse, conservatory or as a houseplant.

http://www.arcbc.org/arcbcweb/ASEAN_Precious_plants/horticulture/Medinilla_magnifica.htm

7.03

No products

 

7.04

Seed, probably distributed by birds.

http://www.hear.org/pier/species/medinilla_magnifica.htm

7.05

Plant grows in very we rainforest habitats; some movement of berries/seeds with water is possible

7.06

Seed, probably distributed by birds.

http://www.hear.org/pier/species/medinilla_magnifica.htm

7.07

No means of attachment

 

7.08

(1)Seed, probably distributed by birds. (2)Fruit a cup-like purple-pink berry

(1)http://www.hear.org/pier/species/medinilla_magnifica.htm (2)Whistler, W.A. 2000. Tropical ornamentals. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

8.01

(1) Berry 4-6 celled [genus trait]

(2) picture of a bearing panicle

[Probably yes, the fruit are small berries containing numerous seeds on a panicle of large number of berries]

(1) Wagner et al. 1990. Manual of the Flowering plants of Hawaii

(2) http://www.arcbc.org/arcbcweb/ASEAN_Precious_plants/images/Medenilla_magnifica.jpg

8.02

No evidence regarding seed bank.[probably lacks dormancy; a wetforest epiphyte]

 

8.03

No evidence that the species is being controlled for.

 

8.04

[probably not; weak epiphytic roots]

 

8.05

Don’t know


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