Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Fagraea berteroana


RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTS: Low risk, score: -1


Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawai‘i.

Research directed by C. Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service

Information on Risk Assessments
Original risk assessment

Fagraea berteroana (F. berteriana) ; pua keni keni

Answer

1.01

Is the species highly domesticated?

y=-3, n=0

n

1.02

Has the species become naturalized where grown?

y=-1, n=-1

n

1.03

Does the species have weedy races?

y=-1, n=-1

n

2.01

Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) – If island is primarily wet habitat, then substitute “wet tropical” for “tropical or subtropical”

See Append 2

2

2.02

Quality of climate match data (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) see appendix 2

2

2.03

Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility)

y=1, n=0

n

2.04

Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climates

y=1, n=0

y

2.05

Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range? y=-2

?=-1, n=0

n

3.01

Naturalized beyond native range y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2), n= question 2.05

n

3.02

Garden/amenity/disturbance weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

3.03

Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

3.04

Environmental weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

3.05

Congeneric weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

4.01

Produces spines, thorns or burrs

y=1, n=0

n

4.02

Allelopathic

y=1, n=0

n

4.03

Parasitic

y=1, n=0

n

4.04

Unpalatable to grazing animals

y=1, n=-1

4.05

Toxic to animals

y=1, n=0

n

4.06

Host for recognized pests and pathogens

y=1, n=0

y

4.07

Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans

y=1, n=0

n

4.08

Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems

y=1, n=0

n

4.09

Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle

y=1, n=0

n

4.1

Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions if not a volcanic island)

y=1, n=0

n

4.11

Climbing or smothering growth habit

y=1, n=0

n

4.12

Forms dense thickets

y=1, n=0

n

5.01

Aquatic

y=5, n=0

n

5.02

Grass

y=1, n=0

n

5.03

Nitrogen fixing woody plant

y=1, n=0

n

5.04

Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs, corms, or tubers)

y=1, n=0

n

6.01

Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat

y=1, n=0

n

6.02

Produces viable seed.

y=1, n=-1

y

6.03

Hybridizes naturally

y=1, n=-1

6.04

Self-compatible or apomictic

y=1, n=-1

6.05

Requires specialist pollinators

y=-1, n=0

6.06

Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation

y=1, n=-1

n

6.07

Minimum generative time (years) 1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 4+ years = -1

See left

7.01

Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked areas)

y=1, n=-1

n

7.02

Propagules dispersed intentionally by people

y=1, n=-1

y

7.03

Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant

y=1, n=-1

n

7.04

Propagules adapted to wind dispersal

y=1, n=-1

n

7.05

Propagules water dispersed

y=1, n=-1

n

7.06

Propagules bird dispersed

y=1, n=-1

7.07

Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally)

y=1, n=-1

n

7.08

Propagules survive passage through the gut

y=1, n=-1

y

8.01

Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)

y=1, n=-1

8.02

Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)

y=1, n=-1

8.03

Well controlled by herbicides

y=-1, n=1

8.04

Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire

y=1, n=-1

8.05

Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)

y=-1, n=1

Total score:

-1

Supporting data:

Source

Notes

1.01

no evidence

1.02

no evidence

1.03

no evidence

2.01

CAB International, (2000) Forestry Compendium Global Module. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

List of countries with natural populations
Oceania: Australia (Queensland), Fiji, Micronesia, Federated states of Papua New Guinea

2.02

2.03

(1)http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/oc/oc0103_full.html (2)Merlin, M. D. (1985) Woody vegetation in the upland region of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. Pacific Science, 1985, Vol.39, No.1, pp.81-99, 20 ref.

(1)occurs on knife-edge ridges at mid-elevations, tropical wet forest (2)Ridge forest

2.04

Merlin, M. D. (1985) Woody vegetation in the upland region of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. Pacific Science, 1985, Vol.39, No.1, pp.81-99, 20 ref.

AB: Woody vegetation was sampled in July-Aug. 1983 along transects in the upland forests of the interior using the point centred quarter method. Cluster analysis of the data on species presence/absence and relative dominance was used to examine plant associations. Although coastal and lowland vegetation has been extensively removed or disturbed, >92% of all woody plants (d.b.h. >2.5 cm) sampled in the 19 transects were indigenous, including endemic species. Native plants also accounted for >95% of the b.a. covered by woody vegetation. Dendrogram analysis indicated 3 basic plant associations: montane forest dominated by Homalium acuminatum ; ridge forest dominated by Fagraea berteriana and Fitchia speciosa ; and warm temperate cloud forest dominated by Metrosideros collina.

2.05

Nelson, S. L.; Miller, M. A.; Heske, E. J.; Fahey, G. C., Jr. (2000) Nutritional quality of leaves and unripe fruit consumed as famine foods by the flying foxes of Samoa. Pacific Science, 2000, Vol.54, No.4, pp.301-311, 35 ref.

Hawaii

3.01

no evidence

3.02

no evidence

3.03

no evidence

3.04

no evidence

3.05

no evidence

4.01

Whistler, A.W. (2000) Tropical Oramentals: a Guide. Timber Press, Inc., Portland, Oregon. 542pp. p.208

no description of these traits

4.02

no evidence

4.03

no evidence

4.04

no evidence

4.05

Nelson, S. L.; Miller, M. A.; Heske, E. J.; Fahey, G. C., Jr. (2000) Nutritional quality of leaves and unripe fruit consumed as famine foods by the flying foxes of Samoa. Pacific Science, 2000, Vol.54, No.4, pp.301-311, 35 ref.

AB: The nutritional composition of leaves and immature fruits from tropical tree species including Ficus spp., Elaeocarpus ulianus, Inocarpus fagifer, Calophyllum inophyllum, Syzygium inophylloides, Fagrae bertoana [Fagraea berteroana], Palaquium stehlinii and Planchonella samoensis collected on Tutuila, American Samoa, were examined and contents of organic and mineral nutrients were compared with those of ripe fruits. Fruit bats, including Pteropus samoensis and P. tonganus , increase their consumption of foods such as unripe fruits and leaves during periods of low fruit diversity and volume (famine foods). Principal components analysis was used to examine the patterns of variation in nutrients of leaves, unripe fruit and ripe fruit. Unripe fruit, overall, provided levels of nutrients comparable with those of ripe fruits of the same species for many organic and mineral components. Unripe fruits were only half as rich in iron as ripe fruit, but unripe fruits had higher levels of calcium compared with ripe fr

4.06

Nishida, R.; Shelly, T. E.; Kaneshiro, K. Y. (1997) Acquisition of female-attracting fragrance by males of Oriental fruit fly from a Hawaiian lei flower, Fagraea berteriana. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 1997, Vol.23, No.10, pp.2275-2285, 22 ref.

AB: Males of Bactrocera dorsalis , are strongly attracted to and compulsively feed on Fagraea berteriana . A series of phenylpropanoid components, trans -3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol, its acetate, and trans -3,4-dimethoxycinnamaldehyde were characterized as male attractants. In laboratory experiments, the alcohol stimulated the same level of feeding activity as methyl eugenol. Males that fed on flowers selectively converted the attractant components into trans -coniferyl alcohol and stored it in rectal glands. Males scented with the phenylpropanoids were more successful in mating than unfed males, indicating the advantage of acquiring the fragrance in mating success.  

4.07

no evidence

4.08

unlikely, leaves are somewhat succulent, lush, grows in wet forest

4.09

Whistler, A.W. (2000) Tropical Oramentals: a Guide. Timber Press, Inc., Portland, Oregon. 542pp. p.209

"Well drained soils in sunny or partial shaded palces are preferred."

4.1

Whistler, A.W. (2000) Tropical Oramentals: a Guide. Timber Press, Inc., Portland, Oregon. 542pp. p.209

"Well drained soils in sunny or partial shaded palces are preferred."

4.11

Whistler, A.W. (2000) Tropical Oramentals: a Guide. Timber Press, Inc., Portland, Oregon. 542pp. p.208

"tree or shrub to 15 m"

4.12

no evidence

5.01

terrestrial

5.02

tree or shrub; Loganiaceae

5.03

no evidence

5.04

tree or shrub

6.01

no evidence

6.02

Whistler, A.W. (2000) Tropical Oramentals: a Guide. Timber Press, Inc., Portland, Oregon. 542pp. p.209

" Propagate by cuttings, air layering, or seeds.'

6.03

no evidence

6.04

no evidence

6.05

Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi (Department of Integrative Biology
University of California, Berkeley 94720; anthonyd@uclink.berkeley.edu) A Survey of Macrolepidopteran Moths on Moorea, French Polynesia with a Preliminary Examination of Their Role as Pollinators
<http://anthony.darrouzet-nardi.net/biology/mothpaper.pdf>

Fagraea berteriana was suggested to be moth pollinated (tubular, white, fragrant flower), but no direct evidence of association was established.

6.06

no evidence

6.07

no evidence

7.01

no evidence

7.02

an oramental

7.03

no evidence

7.04

no evidence

7.05

no evidence

7.06

(1)Whistler, A.W. (2000) Tropical Oramentals: a Guide. Timber Press, Inc., Portland, Oregon. 542pp. p.208 (2)http://liholiho.k12.hi.us/lee/1998-99/branplan.html (3)Nelson, S. L.; Miller, M. A.; Heske, E. J.; Fahey, G. C., Jr. (2000) Nutritional quality of leaves and unripe fruit consumed as famine foods by the flying foxes of Samoa. Pacific Science, 2000, Vol.54, No.4, pp.301-311, 35 ref.

(1)" Fruit an orange to red, ellipsoidal, many seeded berry 3-5 cm long." (2)berry contains many seeds that birds like to eat. [this is the web page of an elementary school student in Hawai‘i. I have never seed birds feeding on these fruits in Hawaii] (3)bat dispersed (4)bat dispersed [related Fagraea galilai]

7.07

Nelson, S. L.; Miller, M. A.; Heske, E. J.; Fahey, G. C., Jr. (2000) Nutritional quality of leaves and unripe fruit consumed as famine foods by the flying foxes of Samoa. Pacific Science, 2000, Vol.54, No.4, pp.301-311, 35 ref.

AB: The nutritional composition of leaves and immature fruits from tropical tree species including Ficus spp., Elaeocarpus ulianus, Inocarpus fagifer, Calophyllum inophyllum, Syzygium inophylloides, Fagrae bertoana [Fagraea berteroana], Palaquium stehlinii and Planchonella samoensis collected on Tutuila, American Samoa, were examined and contents of organic and mineral nutrients were compared with those of ripe fruits. Fruit bats, including Pteropus samoensis and P. tonganus , increase their consumption of foods such as unripe fruits and leaves during periods of low fruit diversity and volume (famine foods). Principal components analysis was used to examine the patterns of variation in nutrients of leaves, unripe fruit and ripe fruit. Unripe fruit, overall, provided levels of nutrients comparable with those of ripe fruits of the same species for many organic and mineral components. Unripe fruits were only half as rich in iron as ripe fruit, but unripe fruits had higher levels of calcium compared with ripe fr

7.08

bat-dispersed

8.01

Whistler, A.W. (2000) Tropical Oramentals: a Guide. Timber Press, Inc., Portland, Oregon. 542pp. p.208

" Fruit an orange to red, ellipsoidal, many seeded berry 3-5 cm long."

8.02

no evidence

8.03

no evidence

8.04

no evidence

8.05

no evidence


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