Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Buddleja marrubiifolia


RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTS: Low risk, score: -3


Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawai‘i.
Information on Risk Assessments

Buddleja marrubiifolia Benth. Family - Buddlejaceae. Common Names(s) - Woolly Butterfly Bush.

Answer

Score

1.01

Is the species highly domesticated?

y=-3, n=0

n

0

1.02

Has the species become naturalized where grown?

y=1, n=-1

1.03

Does the species have weedy races?

y=-1, n=-1

2.01

Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) – If island is primarily wet habitat, then substitute “wet tropical” for “tropical or subtropical”

See Append 2

1

2.02

Quality of climate match data (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) see appendix 2

2

2.03

Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility)

y=1, n=0

y

1

2.04

Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climates

y=1, n=0

n

0

2.05

Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range?

y=-2, ?=-1, n=0

n

0

3.01

Naturalized beyond native range y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2), n= question 2.05

n

0

3.02

Garden/amenity/disturbance weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

3.03

Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

3.04

Environmental weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

3.05

Congeneric weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

y

1

4.01

Produces spines, thorns or burrs

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.02

Allelopathic

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.03

Parasitic

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.04

Unpalatable to grazing animals

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

4.05

Toxic to animals

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.06

Host for recognized pests and pathogens

y=1, n=0

4.07

Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.08

Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.09

Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.10

Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions if not a volcanic island)

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.11

Climbing or smothering growth habit

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.12

Forms dense thickets

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.01

Aquatic

y=5, n=0

n

0

5.02

Grass

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.03

Nitrogen fixing woody plant

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.04

Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs, corms, or tubers)

y=1, n=0

n

0

6.01

Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat

y=1, n=0

n

0

6.02

Produces viable seed.

y=1, n=-1

y

1

6.03

Hybridizes naturally

y=1, n=-1

6.04

Self-compatible or apomictic

y=1, n=-1

6.05

Requires specialist pollinators

y=-1, n=0

n

0

6.06

Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

6.07

Minimum generative time (years) 1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 4+ years = -1

See left

7.01

Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked areas)

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.02

Propagules dispersed intentionally by people

y=1, n=-1

y

1

7.03

Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.04

Propagules adapted to wind dispersal

y=1, n=-1

y

1

7.05

Propagules water dispersed

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.06

Propagules bird dispersed

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.07

Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally)

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.08

Propagules survive passage through the gut

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

8.01

Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)

y=1, n=-1

8.02

Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)

y=1, n=-1

8.03

Well controlled by herbicides (2)The fruit is a dehiscent, oblong-ovoid capsule about 0.15" long.

y=-1, n=1

y

-1

8.04

Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire

y=1, n=-1

y

1

8.05

Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)

y=-1, n=1

Total score:

-3

Supporting data:

Notes

Source

1.01

(1)No evidence (2)No evidence

(1)Staples, G.W. and D.R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. (2)Irish, M. 2006. Perennials for the Southwest: plants that flourish in arid gardens. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

1.02

1.03

2.01

(1)native to western Texas and adjacent Mexico. (2)In the United States in far western Texas. In Mexico from eastern Chihuahua, northwestern Durango, Coahuila, western Nuevo Leon and Zacatecas, and northeastern Nuevo Leon at elevations from 2300 to 7900 ft. (690 to 2400 m). [species range extends marginally into subtropical areas]

(1)Staples, G.W. and D.R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. (2)Irish, M. 2006. Perennials for the Southwest: plants that flourish in arid gardens. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

2.02

(1)native to western Texas and adjacent Mexico. (2)In the United States in far western Texas. In Mexico from eastern Chihuahua, northwestern Durango, Coahuila, western Nuevo Leon and Zacatecas, and northeastern Nuevo Leon at elevations from 2300 to 7900 ft. (690 to 2400 m). [species range extends marginally into subtropical areas]

(1)Staples, G.W. and D.R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. (2)Irish, M. 2006. Perennials for the Southwest: plants that flourish in arid gardens. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

2.03

(1)In the United States in far western Texas. In Mexico from eastern Chihuahua, northwestern Durango, Coahuila, western Nuevo Leon and Zacatecas, and northeastern Nuevo Leon at elevations from 2300 to 7900 ft. (690 to 2400 m). [broad elevational range] (2)This plant will cope with a huge variation in temperatures and is well adapted to desert conditions, in which temperatures can go from 40 degrees C to ~10 degrees C (104 to 14 degrees F) in one day.

(1)Irish, M. 2006. Perennials for the Southwest: plants that flourish in arid gardens. Timber Press, Portland, OR. (2)Stuart, D. D. 2006. Buddlejas. Royal Horticultural Society plant collector guide. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

2.04

(1)No evidence

(1)http://www.hear.org/gcw/scientificnames/scinameb.htm [Accessed 14 Aug 2009]

2.05

(1)Buddleja marrubiifolia is rare in cultivation.

(1)Stuart, D. D. 2006. Buddlejas. Royal Horticultural Society plant collector guide. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

3.01

(1)No evidence

(1)http://www.hear.org/gcw/scientificnames/scinameb.htm [Accessed 14 Aug 2009]

3.02

(1)No evidence

(1)http://www.hear.org/gcw/scientificnames/scinameb.htm [Accessed 14 Aug 2009]

3.03

(1)No evidence

(1)http://www.hear.org/gcw/scientificnames/scinameb.htm [Accessed 14 Aug 2009]

3.04

(1)No evidence

(1)http://www.hear.org/gcw/scientificnames/scinameb.htm [Accessed 14 Aug 2009]

3.05

(1) AB: C. japonicus has been investigated as a potential biocontrol agent against B. davidii , an invasive weed of exotic and indigenous forests in New Zealand.
(2) AB: Buddleia (Buddleja davidii ) is an introduced shrub that has become a widespread problem weed in stream beds and on landslide scars in the lowland zone of Te Urewera National Park, New Zealand. Brief results are reported of a study of this shrub in 2 sections of the Park, both heavily infested with B. davidii . Growth, stand development, forest floor development, regeneration of indigenous species under B. davidii and the effect of this weed on natural successions were studied. B. davidii rapidly and effectively stabilizes new flood deposits, is eventually replaced by native trees and shrubs, and does not appear to spread into established native forest. However, it is not a native plant and if left uncontrolled could spread into all lowland catchments in the Park.
(3) AB: Regeneration of indigenous species under 2- to 17-year-old B. davidii (an exotic shrub or small tree widely naturalized in N. Island and northern S. Island) in streambeds was studied in four catchments in the western Ikawhenua Range and the upper Waioeka catchment, N. Island, New Zealand. Rapid early growth of buddleia (0.5 m height, 1 cm basal diameter per year) levelled off after 15 years or more. Self-thinning occurred in younger stands. Seedlings of ten indigenous trees and shrubs were widespread under buddleia; primary colonizers (e.g. Hebe stricta, Kunzea ericoides ) were more common under younger buddleia stands, other seral species (e.g. Pseudopanax arboreus, Melicytus ramiflorus, Aristotelia serrata ) were more common under older stands. Buddleia's rapid early growth displaced indigenous primary colonizers, herbaceous and woody, thus accelerating successions to forest on fresh alluvium by replacing longer-lived species (e.g. K. ericoides ). With no intervention, buddleia is likely to remain a permanent component in catchments where it is established. (4)On Kaua'i, B. davidii is sparingly naturalized from plantings in Koke'e State Park, elevation 1,158 m (3,800 ft), in secondary forest and remnant mixed mesophytic forest with Acacia koa and Metrosideros polymorpha (Shannon and Wagner 1996). [Shannon, R.K. and W.L. Wagner. 1996. New records of Hawaiian flowering plants primarily from the United States National Herbarium. Bishop Mus. Occas. Pap. 46: 13-15]

(1) Brockerhoff, E. G.; Withers, T. M.; Kay, M.; Faulds, W. (1999) Impact of the defoliator Cleopus japonicus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Buddleja davidii in the laboratory. Proceedings of the Fifty Second New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, Auckland Airport Centra, Auckland, New Zealand, 10-12 August, 1999, 1999, editor O'Callaghan, M. , pp.113-118, 15 ref. Buddleia - a growing weed problem in protected areas.
(2) Smale, M. C. (1990) Buddleia - a growing weed problem in protected areas. What's New in Forest Research, 1990, No.185, 4 pp.
(3) Smale, M. C. (1990) Ecological role of buddleia (Buddleja davidii ) in streambeds in Te Urewera National Park. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 1990, Vol.14, pp.1-6, 26 ref. (4)http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/pohreports/buddleia_davidii.pdf

4.01

(1)This shrub attains 1.5-4.5 ft in height and is distinctive for its dense, felty gray-green hair on the young stems and foliage [no evidence]

(1)Staples, G.W. and D.R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

4.02

(1)Wooly butterfly bush blends well with native desert shrubs or perennials for a colorful, year-round planting [no evidence of allelopathic effects on other plants]

(1)Irish, M. 2006. Perennials for the Southwest: plants that flourish in arid gardens. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

4.03

(1)This shrub attains 1.5-4.5 ft in height and is distinctive for its dense, felty gray-green hair on the young stems and foliage [no evidence]

(1)Staples, G.W. and D.R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

4.04

(1)The spreading shrubs grow to almost 1.5 m high and are said to be fair browse for livestock. (2)Use Wildlife: Nectar-butterflies, Browse

(1)Powell, A. M. 1998. Trees and shrubs of the Trans-Pecos and adjacent areas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX. (2)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=BUMA [Accessed 14 Aug 2009]

4.05

(1)The spreading shrubs grow to almost 1.5 m high and are said to be fair browse for livestock. [no evidence of toxicity]

(1)Powell, A. M. 1998. Trees and shrubs of the Trans-Pecos and adjacent areas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX.

4.06

Unknown

4.07

(1)The plants are used medicinally in Mexico. An infusion of the flowers is used to color butter yellow [no evidence of toxicity]

(1)Powell, A. M. 1998. Trees and shrubs of the Trans-Pecos and adjacent areas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX.

4.08

(1)No evidence from native range

(1)Powell, A. M. 1998. Trees and shrubs of the Trans-Pecos and adjacent areas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX.

4.09

(1)Exposure: Full sun, even in the desert.

(1)Irish, M. 2006. Perennials for the Southwest: plants that flourish in arid gardens. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

4.10

(1)Wooly butterfly bush requires alkaline soil with extremely sharp drainage. It is quickly killed with too much watering or soils that do not drain sufficiently

(1)Irish, M. 2006. Perennials for the Southwest: plants that flourish in arid gardens. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

4.11

(1)This shrub attains 1.5-4.5 ft in height and is distinctive for its dense, felty gray-green hair on the young stems and foliage.

(1)Staples, G.W. and D.R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

4.12

(1)No evidence from native range

(1)Powell, A. M. 1998. Trees and shrubs of the Trans-Pecos and adjacent areas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX.

5.01

(1)Terrestrial

(1)Staples, G.W. and D.R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

5.02

(1)Buddlejaceae

(1)Staples, G.W. and D.R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

5.03

(1)Buddlejaceae

(1)Staples, G.W. and D.R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

5.04

(1)This shrub attains 1.5-4.5 ft in height and is distinctive for its dense, felty gray-green hair on the young stems and foliage.

(1)Staples, G.W. and D.R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

6.01

(1)No evidence

(1)Powell, A. M. 1998. Trees and shrubs of the Trans-Pecos and adjacent areas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX.

6.02

(1)Propagation: seeds, softwood and hardwood cuttings.

(1)Miller, G. O. 2006. Landscaping with Native Plants of Texas. Voyageur Press, St. Paul, MN.

6.03

Unknown

6.04

Unknown

6.05

(1)As its name suggests, woolly butterfly bush is highly attractive to butterflies. Its summer flowering habit makes it a particular good choice in a mixed butterfly garden to help keep these tiny visitors fed throughout the summer. (2)This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds

(1)Irish, M. 2006. Perennials for the Southwest: plants that flourish in arid gardens. Timber Press, Portland, OR. (2)http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/54351/ [Accessed 14 Aug 2009]

6.06

(1)Propagation: seeds, softwood and hardwood cuttings.[no evidence that plant spreads vegetatively]

(1)Miller, G. O. 2006. Landscaping with Native Plants of Texas. Voyageur Press, St. Paul, MN.

6.07

(1)GROWTH RATE Moderate

(1)http://www.mswn.com/Plant%20Info%20Sheets/Buddleja%20marrubiifolia.pdf [Accessed 14 Aug 2009]

7.01

(1)Fruit Characteristics: capsule (2)The fruit is a dehiscent, oblong-ovoid capsule about 0.15" long, sparsely tomentose around the apex. [no evidence or apparent means of external attachment]

(1)http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ornamentals/nativeshrubs/buddlejamarrubii.htm [Accessed 14 Aug 2009] (2)Staples, G.W. and D.R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

7.02

(1)grown ornamentally

(1)Irish, M. 2006. Perennials for the Southwest: plants that flourish in arid gardens. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

7.03

(1)No evidence, and not grown with produce or used in dried floral arrangements

(1)Irish, M. 2006. Perennials for the Southwest: plants that flourish in arid gardens. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

7.04

(1)Fruit Characteristics: capsule (2)The fruit is a dehiscent, oblong-ovoid capsule about 0.15" long, sparsely tomentose around the apex. [fruit adaptations for gravity and wind dispersal, as are several other members of genus]

(1)http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ornamentals/nativeshrubs/buddlejamarrubii.htm [Accessed 14 Aug 2009] (2)Staples, G.W. and D.R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

7.05

(1)Native Habitat: High elevation, Ditches, Ravines, Depressions, Hillsides, Slopes [possible that ravine plants are dispersed by water, but fruits & seeds apparently not specifically adapted for water dispersal]

(1)http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=BUMA [Accessed 14 Aug 2009]

7.06

(1)Fruit Characteristics: capsule (2)The fruit is a dehiscent, oblong-ovoid capsule about 0.15" long, sparsely tomentose around the apex. [not fleshy-fruited]

(1)http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ornamentals/nativeshrubs/buddlejamarrubii.htm [Accessed 14 Aug 2009] (2)Staples, G.W. and D.R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

7.07

(1)Fruit Characteristics: capsule (2)The fruit is a dehiscent, oblong-ovoid capsule about 0.15" long, sparsely tomentose around the apex. [no evidence or apparent means of external attachment]

(1)http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ornamentals/nativeshrubs/buddlejamarrubii.htm [Accessed 14 Aug 2009] (2)Staples, G.W. and D.R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

7.08

(1)Fruit Characteristics: capsule (2)The fruit is a dehiscent, oblong-ovoid capsule about 0.15" long, sparsely tomentose around the apex. [no evidence of animal consumption]

(1)http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ornamentals/nativeshrubs/buddlejamarrubii.htm [Accessed 14 Aug 2009] (2)Staples, G.W. and D.R. Herbst. 2005. A Tropical Garden Flora: Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

8.01

Unknown

8.02

Unknown

8.03

(1)"Sensitive to glyphosate and hormone type herbicides. Very sensitive to triclopyr ester applied to basal bark (10% product in oil) and triclopyr amine in foliar application at 2% product in water." [information for control on invasive B. asiatica would likely work on B. marrubiifolia as well]

(1)Motooka, P., L. Castro, D. Nelson, G. Nagai, and L. Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii’s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa

8.04

(1)Pruning in the early spring helps to keep a dense shape and promote flowering, since the species blooms on new wood. (2)Pruning in the early spring will help keep its shape dense and promote flowering, since it blooms on new wood. It can suffer freeze damage in severe winters and is only marginally hardy north of Austin, although it may return from the roots.

(1)Miller, G. O. 2006. Landscaping with Native Plants of Texas. Voyageur Press, St. Paul, MN. (2)http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ornamentals/nativeshrubs/buddlejamarrubii.htm [Accessed 14 Aug 2009]

8.05

Unknown


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER!


[ Return to PIER homepage ] [Risk assessment page]


This page created 23 October 2010