Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Blechnum orientale


RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTS: Low risk, score: -1


Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawai‘i.
Information on Risk Assessments

Blechnum orientale L. Family - Blechnaceae Common Names(s) - Oriental blechnum

Answer

Score

1.01

Is the species highly domesticated?

y=-3, n=0

n

0

1.02

Has the species become naturalized where grown?

y=1, n=-1

1.03

Does the species have weedy races?

y=1, n=-1

2.01

Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) – If island is primarily wet habitat, then substitute “wet tropical” for “tropical or subtropical”

See Append 2

2

2.02

Quality of climate match data (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) see appendix 2

2

2.03

Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility)

y=1, n=0

n

0

2.04

Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climates

y=1, n=0

y

1

2.05

Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range?

y=-2, ?=-1, n=0

n

0

3.01

Naturalized beyond native range y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2), n= question 2.05

n

0

3.02

Garden/amenity/disturbance weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

3.03

Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

3.04

Environmental weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

3.05

Congeneric weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

4.01

Produces spines, thorns or burrs

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.02

Allelopathic

y=1, n=0

y

1

4.03

Parasitic

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.04

Unpalatable to grazing animals

y=1, n=-1

4.05

Toxic to animals

y=1, n=0

4.06

Host for recognized pests and pathogens

y=1, n=0

4.07

Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.08

Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems

y=1, n=0

4.09

Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle

y=1, n=0

4.10

Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions if not a volcanic island)

y=1, n=0

4.11

Climbing or smothering growth habit

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.12

Forms dense thickets

y=1, n=0

5.01

Aquatic

y=5, n=0

n

0

5.02

Grass

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.03

Nitrogen fixing woody plant

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.04

Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs, corms, or tubers)

y=1, n=0

n

0

6.01

Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat

y=1, n=0

n

0

6.02

Produces viable seed.

y=1, n=-1

y

1

6.03

Hybridizes naturally

y=1, n=-1

6.04

Self-compatible or apomictic

y=1, n=-1

y

1

6.05

Requires specialist pollinators

y=-1, n=0

n

0

6.06

Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation

y=1, n=-1

6.07

Minimum generative time (years) 1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 4+ years = -1

See left

7.01

Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked areas)

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.02

Propagules dispersed intentionally by people

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.03

Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.04

Propagules adapted to wind dispersal

y=1, n=-1

y

1

7.05

Propagules water dispersed

y=1, n=-1

7.06

Propagules bird dispersed

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.07

Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally)

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.08

Propagules survive passage through the gut

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

8.01

Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)

y=1, n=-1

y

1

8.02

Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

8.03

Well controlled by herbicides

y=-1, n=1

8.04

Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire

y=1, n=-1

8.05

Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)

y=-1, n=1

Total score:

-1

Supporting data:

Notes

Source

1.01

No evidence.

 

1.02

1.03

2.01

(1) Native to: China, Japan, Taiwan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Australia, Micronesia, Fiji, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu.

(1) http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?403464 [Cited 2010 February 2].

2.02

(1) Native to: China, Japan, Taiwan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Australia, Micronesia, Fiji, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu.

(1) http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?403464 [Cited 2010 February 2].

2.03

(1) Blechnum orientale occurs abundantly in lowland forests from 500-700 feet in Darjeeling District, India. (2) USDA zone 11

(1) http://www.new.dli.ernet.in/rawdataupload/upload/insa/INSA_1/20005b71_47.pdf [cited 2010 February 2]. (2) http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/95825/ [Cited 2010 February 2].

2.04

(1) Native to: China, Japan, Taiwan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Australia, Micronesia, Fiji, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu.

(1) http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?403464 [Cited 2010 February 2].

2.05

No evidence of repeated introductions.

 

3.01

No evidence of naturalization. (may be sparsely naturalized on Oahu, not published)

 

3.02

(1) No evidence of being a garden/amenity/disturbance weed.

(1) http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/blechnum_orientale/ [Cited 2010 February 2].

3.03

(1) No evidence.

(1) http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/blechnum_orientale/ [Cited 2010 February 2].

3.04

(1) Widespread in tropical areas. Causes serious invasion in hilly and uncultivated areas. [could be an early successional species]

(1) Hong, N. H., Xuan, T.D., Eiji, T., Khanj, T.D. 2004. "Paddy weed control by higher plants from Southeast Asia." Crop Protection 23(3): 255-261.

3.05

(1) Blechnum occidentale is a weed in shady forest floors in Hawaii. It displaces low-growing plants. [no evidence of control]

(1) http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/invweed/WeedsHI/W_Blechnum_occidentale.pdf [cited 2010 February 2].

4.01

(1) "A large, terrestrial, erect sun-fern of hilly areas with peculiar circinate vernation, grows up to man-height or more. Fronds pinnately compound. Sori linear, continuous along the costae."

(1) Sarker, S., & Hossain, A. 2009 Jun 27. Pteridophytes of greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh used as vegetables and medicines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. [Online] 16:1

4.02

(1) Dried leaves of Blechnum orientale were applied to rice fields in Vietnam to test the allelopathic ability of B. orientale on ten rice paddy weeds. The inhibitory effects of B. orientale were significant and suppressed 65% of the weeds in its treatment.

(1) Hong, N. H., Xuan, T.D., Eiji, T., Khanj, T.D. 2004. "Paddy weed control by higher plants from Southeast Asia." Crop Protection 23(3): 255-261.

4.03

(1) Not parasitic.

(1)http://www.omnisterra.com/bot/pp_home.cgi?name=blechnum+orientale&submit=Submit+Query&search=all [Cited 2010 February 2].

4.04

Unknown

4.05

Unknown

4.06

Unknown

4.07

(1) This species is popularly used as vegetables and ethno-medicine by the Garo of Gozni in Sherpur, Bangladesh. The fronds and rhizome are used. (2) B. orientale is used by nursing mothers to cure boils in infants and given to children.

(1) Sarker, S., & Hossain, A. 2009 Jun 27. Pteridophytes of greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh used as vegetables and medicines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. [Online] 16:1 (2) http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/moorea/Baltrushes2006.pdf [cited 2010 February 2].

4.08

Unknown

4.09

(1) Grows in sunny places near hill slopes. (2) Partial shade to full shade.

(1) Sarker, S., & Hossain, A. 2009 Jun 27. Pteridophytes of greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh used as vegetables and medicines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. [Online] 16:1 (2) http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/95825/ [cited 2010 February 2].

4.10

Unknown

4.11

(1) "A large, terrestrial, erect sun-fern of hilly areas with peculiar circinate vernation, grows up to man-height or more. Fronds pinnately compound. Sori linear, continuous along the costae."

(1) Sarker, S., & Hossain, A. 2009 Jun 27. Pteridophytes of greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh used as vegetables and medicines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. [Online] 16:1

4.12

Unknown

5.01

(1) Terrestrial fern.

(1) Sarker, S., & Hossain, A. 2009 Jun 27. Pteridophytes of greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh used as vegetables and medicines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. [Online] 16:1

5.02

(1) Blechnaceae

(1) Sarker, S., & Hossain, A. 2009 Jun 27. Pteridophytes of greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh used as vegetables and medicines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. [Online] 16:1

5.03

(1) Blechnaceae- fern

(1) Sarker, S., & Hossain, A. 2009 Jun 27. Pteridophytes of greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh used as vegetables and medicines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. [Online] 16:1

5.04

(1) fern

(1) Sarker, S., & Hossain, A. 2009 Jun 27. Pteridophytes of greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh used as vegetables and medicines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. [Online] 16:1

6.01

(1) Very common in the hilly areas of Bangladesh. (2) Blechnum orientale occurs abundantly in lowland forests from 500-700 feet in Darjeeling District, India.

(1) Sarker, S., & Hossain, A. 2009 Jun 27. Pteridophytes of greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh used as vegetables and medicines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. [Online] 16:1 (2) http://www.new.dli.ernet.in/rawdataupload/upload/insa/INSA_1/20005b71_47.pdf [cited 2010 February 2].

6.02

(1) Fertile leaves of B. orientale were produced every month except October. The time from spore maturation to release was more than 4 months in Blechnum orientale

(1) Lee, P.-H., Lin, T.T., Chiou, W.L. 2009. "Phenology of 16 species of ferns in a subtropical forest of northeastern Taiwan." Journal of Plant Research 122(1): 61-67.

6.03

Unknown

6.04

(1) The life cycle and reproduction of the pteridophytes is characterized by a complete absence of conspicuous flowers and fruit, the production of minute fine spores, often in copious quantities, and by alternating generations of separate spore producing plants (sporophytes) and gamete producing plants (gametophytes). The general cycle involves the production of asexual spores on the sporophyte which are shed and germinate to grow into gametophytes which produce male organs with motile sperm and female organs with non-motile egg cells. Fertilization follows and the egg cell develops into a new sporophyte to complete and continue the cycle. (2) In ferns, sexual reproduction and gametophytic apomixis occur via spores, which are dispersed and germinate to form gametophytes.

(1) http://www.anbg.gov.au/fern/life_cycle.html [Cited 2010 February 2]. (2) Koptur, S., Lee, M.A.B. 1993. Plantlet formation in tropical montane ferns: a preliminary investigation. American Fern Journal. 83 (2):60-68.

6.05

(1) fern

(1) Sarker, S., & Hossain, A. 2009 Jun 27. Pteridophytes of greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh used as vegetables and medicines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. [Online] 16:1

6.06

Unknown (1) Some species of Blechnum are capable of vegetative reproduction.

 

6.07

(1) Spores of Blechnum orientale were spread on a slope surface to test the ability of Blechnum to propagate through the spreading of spores. Although the germination was slow, spores were spread in April 2002 and germination was noted by October 2002. Notable patches were found by July 2003.

(1) http://www.cedd.gov.hk/eng/publications/manuals/doc/spr_7_2004.pdf [Cited 2010 February 2].

7.01

No evidence of growing in an area of heavy traffic.

 

7.02

(1) "A large, terrestrial, erect sun-fern of hilly areas with peculiar circinate vernation, grows up to man-height or more." [no evidence of B. orientale for sale via the internet].

(1) Sarker, S., & Hossain, A. 2009 Jun 27. Pteridophytes of greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh used as vegetables and medicines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. [Online] 16:1

7.03

No evidence of produce contamination.

 

7.04

(1) "A large, terrestrial, erect sun-fern of hilly areas with peculiar circinate vernation, grows up to man-height or more. Fronds pinnately compound. Sori linear, continuous along the costae." Spores

(1) Sarker, S., & Hossain, A. 2009 Jun 27. Pteridophytes of greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh used as vegetables and medicines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. [Online] 16:1

7.05

Unknown (1) "A large, terrestrial, erect sun-fern of hilly areas with peculiar circinate vernation, grows up to man-height or more. Fronds pinnately compound. Sori linear, continuous along the costae." Spores

(1) Sarker, S., & Hossain, A. 2009 Jun 27. Pteridophytes of greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh used as vegetables and medicines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. [Online] 16:1

7.06

(1) "A large, terrestrial, erect sun-fern of hilly areas with peculiar circinate vernation, grows up to man-height or more. Fronds pinnately compound. Sori linear, continuous along the costae." Spores

(1) Sarker, S., & Hossain, A. 2009 Jun 27. Pteridophytes of greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh used as vegetables and medicines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. [Online] 16:1

7.07

(1) "A large, terrestrial, erect sun-fern of hilly areas with peculiar circinate vernation, grows up to man-height or more. Fronds pinnately compound. Sori linear, continuous along the costae." Spores [no external means of attachment]

(1) Sarker, S., & Hossain, A. 2009 Jun 27. Pteridophytes of greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh used as vegetables and medicines. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. [Online] 16:1

7.08

Unlikely to be eaten by animals, and if consumed spores would probably be destroyed during digestion.

 

8.01

According to theAustralian WRA Workshop 2007 protocol, assume ferns have prolific spore production unless contradictory evidence exists.

 

8.02

(1) The viability of spores is anywhere from a few days to a few months. The gametophyte generation, or prothallus, in ferns and their allies is nearly always short lived and inconspicuous.

(1) http://www.anbg.gov.au/fern/life_cycle.html [cited 2010 February 2].

8.03

Unknown

8.04

Unknown

8.05

Don't know


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