Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Arundo donax


RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTS: High risk, score: 12


Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawai‘i.
Information on Risk Assessments
Original risk assessment
  Arundo donax (Giant reed, Spanish reed, giant cane, giant feather-reed grass ). Family - Poaceae Answer Score
1.01 Is the species highly domesticated? (If answer is 'no' then go to question 2.01) n 0
1.02 Has the species become naturalized where grown?    
1.03 Does the species have weedy races?    
2.01 Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) – If island is primarily wet habitat, then substitute “wet tropical” for “tropical or subtropical” 1  
2.02 Quality of climate match data (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high)                 see appendix 2 2  
2.03 Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility) y 1
2.04 Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climates y 1
2.05 Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range?  y=-2 y  
3.01 Naturalized beyond native range         y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2), n= question 2.05 y 1
3.02 Garden/amenity/disturbance weed                              y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)    
3.03 Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed                         y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2) n 0
3.04 Environmental weed                                                     y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2) y 2
3.05 Congeneric weed                                                          y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2) n 0
4.01 Produces spines, thorns or burrs n 0
4.02 Allelopathic    
4.03 Parasitic n 0
4.04 Unpalatable to grazing animals n -1
4.05 Toxic to animals n 0
4.06 Host for recognized pests and pathogens n 0
4.07 Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans y 1
4.08 Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems y 1
4.09 Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle n 0
4.1 Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions if not a volcanic island) y 1
4.11 Climbing or smothering growth habit n 0
4.12 Forms dense thickets y 1
5.01 Aquatic n 0
5.02 Grass y 1
5.03 Nitrogen fixing woody plant n 0
5.04 Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs, corms, or tubers) n 0
6.01 Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat n 0
6.02 Produces viable seed. y 1
6.03 Hybridizes naturally    
6.04 Self-compatible or apomictic    
6.05 Requires specialist pollinators n 0
6.06 Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation y 1
6.07 Minimum generative time (years)                 1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 4+ years = -1 1 1
7.01 Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked areas) y 1
7.02 Propagules dispersed intentionally by people y 1
7.03 Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant n -1
7.04 Propagules adapted to wind dispersal y 1
7.05 Propagules water dispersed y 1
7.06 Propagules bird dispersed n -1
7.07 Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally) n -1
7.08 Propagules survive passage through the gut n -1
8.01 Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)    
8.02 Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)    
8.03 Well controlled by herbicides y -1
8.04 Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire y 1
8.05 Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)    
  Total score:   12

Supporting data:

  Notes Reference
1.01 "Giant reed has played an important role in the culture of the western world through its influence on the development of music, which can be traced back 5000 years. The basis for the origin of the most primitive pipe organ, the Pan pipe or syrinx, was made from A. donax. Reeds for woodwind musical instruments are still made from the culms and no satisfactory substitutes have been developed (Perdue 1958)." [No evidence that the cultivated species substantially differs from the wild relatives.]  
1.02    
1.03 "Several cvs are cultivated as ornamentals. In Arundo donax var. variegate (var. versicolor, var. picta) the leaves are white-striped; in var. macrophylla, leaves are large and glaucous. (2n = 40) ." http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Arundo_donax.html
2.01 (1)Native range - India.   (2)"Said to be native to the circummediterranean area to the Lower Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal and Assams the Nilgiris and Coorg; introduced to many subtropical and warm temperate regions, where it is grown as an ornamental and is often found as a stray from cultivation."  (3)"Native range:  Tropical Asia and the Mediterranean region, now widely naturalized in warm temperate to tropical areas."  (4)"Arundo donax is a native to the countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. From this area it has become widely dispersed, mostly through intentional introduction by man, into all of the subtropical and warm temperate areas of the world."   (5)"A. donax is often considered indigenous to the Mediterranean Basin (Hickman 1993) or to warmer regions of the Old World, but apparently it is an ancient introduction into Europe from the Indian sub-continent (Bell 1998). In Eurasia it similarly inhabits low-gradient river courses and may provide useful wildlife habitat in greatly altered river deltas (Granval et al. 1993, He 1991)." (1)http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ardo1.htm (2)http://www.hear.org/Pier/species/arundo_donax.htm   (3)http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Arundo_donax.html  (4)http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/arundon.rtf  (5)http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/datastore/detailreport.cfm?usernumber=8&surveynumber=182
2.02 (1)Native range: Considered native to Indian sub-continent. (2)Said to be native to the circummediterranean area to the Lower Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal and Assams the Nilgiris and Coorg; introduced to many subtropical and warm temperate regions, where it is grown as an ornamental and is often found as a stray from cultivation. (3)Arundo donax may be native to southern and central Asia, but it was long ago introduced to the Mediterranean region ..." (1)http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ardo1.htm  (2)http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Arundo_donax.html
2.03 (1)"Ranging from Cool Temperate Wet through Tropical Dry to Wet Forest Life Zones, giant reed is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 3 to 40 dm (mean of 112 cases = 13.0) annual temperature of 9 to 28.5°C (mean of 112 cases = 23.6) and pH of 5.0 to 8.7 (mean of 48 cases = 6.9)."  (2)"USDA Zones 6 - 11."   (3)Hardiness:
USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3° C (-10° F)
USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5° C (-5° F)
USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7° C (0° F)
USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9° C (5° F)
USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2° C (10° F)
USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4° C (15° F)
USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6° C (20° F)
USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8° C (25° F)
USDA Zone 10a: to -1.1°C (30° F)
USDA Zone 10b: to 1.7° C (35° F)
(1)http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Arundo_donax.html  (2)http://www.floridata.com/ref/A/arun_don.cfm   (3)http://davesgarden.com/pf/go/1560/
2.04 "In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in coastal areas, often in thickets" (Wagner et al., 1999).  In Fiji, widespread on hillsides, in open forest, and along roadsides, up to about 200 m (Smith, 1979)." http://www.hear.org/Pier/species/arundo_donax.htm
2.05 Said to be native to the circummediterranean area to the Lower Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal and Assams the Nilgiris and Coorg; introduced to many subtropical and warm temperate regions, where it is grown as an ornamental and is often found as a stray from cultivation. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Arundo_donax.html
3.01 (1)"In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in coastal areas, often in thickets" (Wagner et al., 1999).  In Fiji, widespread on hillsides, in open forest, and along roadsides, up to about 200 m (Smith, 1979)."  (2)"A. donax has become invasive in several places where it has been planted, such as California and Florida, where it invades riparian areas and over-runs native plants and riverside habitat (Bodle 1998, Dudley 1998). Large control programs have been established to control A. donax infestations in these areas."  (3)"Giant reed is naturalized and invasive in many regions, including southern Africa, subtropical United States through Mexico, the Caribbean islands and South America, Pacific Islands, Australia, and Southeast Asia." (1)http://www.hear.org/Pier/species/arundo_donax.htm (2)http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/arundo_donax.htm  (3)http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/datastore/detailreport.cfm?usernumber=8&surveynumber=182
3.02 (1)"Giant reed readily invades riparian channels, especially in disturbed areas, is very competitive, difficult to control, and to the best of our knowledge does not provide either food or nesting habitat for native animals."  (2)"While it is usually associated with rivers that have been physically disturbed and dammed upstream, giant reed also can colonize within native stands ... " [ANswered yes but not scored because 3.04 is scored for being an environmental weed]. (1)http://ceres.ca.gov/tadn/ecology_impacts/biology.html  (2)http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/datastore/detailreport.cfm?usernumber=8&surveynumber=182
3.03 No evidence  
3.04 (1)"This plant is considered invasive by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each invasive plant list, or click here for a composite list of Invasive Plants of the U.S.
STATE        Assorted authors. 200_. State Noxious Weed Lists for 46 States. State agriculture or natural resource departments. 
CalEPPC        California Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1999. Exotic Plant Pest List(http://www.cal-ipc.org/1999_cal-ipc_list/, October 19, 1999). California Exotic Pest Plant Council. California. 
HEAR        USDI, Geological Survey. 1999. Information Index for Selected Alien Plants in Hawaii(http://www.hear.org, October 20, 1999). Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project, Biological Resources Division, Haleakala Field Station. Makawao, Hawaii. 
SEEPPC        Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1996. Invasive Exotic Pest Plants in Tennessee(http://www.se-eppc.org/states/TN/TNIList.html, October 19, 1999). Research Committee of the Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council. Tennessee."   (2)"Giant reed chokes riversides and stream channels, crowds out native plants, interferes with flood control, increases fire potential, and reduces habitat for wildlife, including the Least Bell's vireo, a federally endangered bird. The long, fibrous, interconnecting root mats of giant reed form a framework for debris dams behind bridges, culverts, and other structures that lead to damage. It ignites easily and can create intense fires."
(1)http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ARDO4  (2)http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ardo1.htm
3.05 No evidence  
4.01 No evidence http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/arundo_donax.htm
4.02 "Abstract: The effect of the rhizospheric soil of some terrestrial plants like Albizia lebbeck Benth, Casuarina equisetifolia Forst, Jatropha curcus L., Pinus roxburghii Sarg. and an emergent plant Arundo donax L. has been screened for their allelopathic interactions on seedling growth of mustard crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Varuna). Phytotoxicity was tested using earthenware pot experiment. The suppressed growth (length, dry weight) of mustard seedlings in the rhizospheric soil of Pinus roxburghii and Arundo donax stand has been observed. Toxicity was more pronounced in the rhizospheric soil of A. donax as compared to P roxburghii. Whereas rhizospheric soil of Albizia lebbeck, Casuarina equisetifolia, Jatropha curcus have been found to promote the shoot length of mustard seedlings but not dry weight." [Unable to conclude whether it is allelopathic under field conditions].  
4.03 No evidence  
4.04 "As fodder, only the young leaves are browsed; the stems are woody, and the grass unpalatable in later stages." http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Arundo_donax.html
4.05 Toxicity - none. http://plants.nrcs.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=plant_attribute.cgi&symbol=ARDO4
4.06 No evidence of A. donax being a host of economically important crops. (1)This site lists over 100 species of fungi to be associated with A. donax. (1)http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/index.cfm
4.07 "This report concerns the case of a 21 year old atopic Caucasian who had played saxophone from 8 years of age and had nearly completed his professional training at a conservatory. He had complained of cheilitis for a year. Within minutes to hours after playing the saxophone, an itchy vesicular edematous eruption developed centrally on his lower lip. The eruption was prevented by applying a corticosteroid cream. Neither the tongue nor the upper lip showed any dermatitis. A strong positive patch test reaction was seen to rye grass and timothy extracts after 15 minutes. A scratch test with fine saxophone reed scrapings was positive. Mycologic culture of the reed scrapings showed no evidence of mold. According to the manufacturer, this reed was Arundo-donax. He was treated with 1% hydrocortisone-acetate cream with good results. A dermatitis has been reported in Provence, France in those working with Arundo-donax. " Allergy to Cane Reed in a Saxophonist
van der Wegen-Keijser MH ; Bruynzeel DP
Contact Dermatitis, Vol. 25, No. 4, pages 268-69, 5 references, 1991 [NIOSH]
4.08 "Once established, giant reed can form huge clones, sometimes covering hundreds of acres.  It is highly flammable and resprouts quickly after burning.  Fires help transform communities of native plants into solid stands of giant reed, changing riverbank forests from flood- to fire-defined habitats" http://www.hear.org/Pier/species/arundo_donax.htm
4.09 (1)Light: Full sun.   (2)Sun Exposure: Full Sun  (3)"While it is usually associated with rivers that have been physically disturbed and dammed upstream, giant reed also can colonize within native stands of cottonwoods, willows, and other riparian species, even growing in sites shaded by tree canopy." (1)http://www.floridata.com/ref/A/arun_don.cfm  (2)http://davesgarden.com/pf/go/1560/  (3)http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/datastore/detailreport.cfm?usernumber=8&surveynumber=182
4.1 (1)" It tolerates a wide variety of conditions, including high salinity, and can flourish in many soil types from heavy clays to loose sands." (2)"Said to tolerate all types of soils, from heavy clays to loose sands and gravelly soils." (1)http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ardo1.htm  (2)http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Arundo_donax.html
4.11 Not a climbier.  
4.12 (1)"Giant reed can float miles downstream where root and stem fragments may take root and initiate new infestations. Due to its rapid growth rate and vegetative reproduction, it is able to quickly invade new areas and form pure stands at the expense of other species." (2)"Once established, giant reed can form huge clones, sometimes covering hundreds of acres.  It is highly flammable and resprouts quickly after burning.  Fires help transform communities of native plants into solid stands of giant reed, changing riverbank forests from flood- to fire-defined habitats" (1)http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ardo1.htm  (2)http://www.hear.org/Pier/species/arundo_donax.htm
5.01    
5.02 Giant reed, also known as wild cane, is a tall, perennial grass that can grow to over 20 feet in height. http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ardo1.htm
5.03 Nitrogen fixation - none. http://plants.nrcs.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=plant_attribute.cgi&symbol=ARDO4
5.04    
6.01 No evidence http://www.issg.org/database/species/distribution_detail.asp?si=112&di=17034&sts=
6.02 (1)"Reproduction of giant reed is primarily vegetative, through rhizomes which root and sprout readily. Little is known about the importance of sexual reproduction in giant reed, or about its seed viability, dormancy, and germination, and seedling establishment. Research on these topics may yield some additional improvements in the management of giant reed. "                                                                  (2)"Reproduction:                                                          
Very little information is available in the literature regarding the biology of A. donax. Perdue (1958) reports that arundo does not produce viable seeds in most areas where it is apparently well-adapted, although plants have been grown in scattered locations from seed collected in Asia. Wind dispersal of seeds is facilitated by having a dense seed head on the end of a tall, flexible culm, presumably catapulting the seeds a fair distance. The importance of sexual reproduction to the species, as well as seed viability, dormancy, germination and seedling establishment, have yet to be studied and published. ... Research Needs (General):                                                
Much more information on seed biology, seedling establishment, growth patterns, and synecology needs to be gathered about arundo. ^Of great interest is the importance of sexual reproduction over vegetative propagation in the establishment of the plant in new locations. Does arundo produce viable seed in California?"                           (3)"Propagation: A. donax can be propagated by seeds. Though in most areas where giant reed is cultivated, viable seeds are not produced (Perdue 1958). A. donax is most often propagated throughout the world by planting root rhizomes which readily sprout. On Maui, flowering A. donax has been observed in a few low elevation sites, including Kihei, Kahului, and Spreckelsville, though it is uncertain whether these seeds are viable or not. No seedlings have been observed to date and most spread on Maui seems to be vegetative." (4)"Seed production is apparently absent in North American populations and vegetative reproduction predominates, similar to many clonal species." [It seems like giant reed can produce viable seeds but not known to do so in North America].
(1)http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ardo1.htm  (2)http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/arundon.rtf  (3)http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/arundo_donax.htm (4)Decruyenaere, Joseph G.; Holt, Jodie S. Ramet demography of a clonal invader, Arundo donax (Poaceae), in Southern California. Plant and Soil 277 (1-2) : 41-52 DEC 2005.
6.03 (1)"Reproduction of giant reed is primarily vegetative, through rhizomes which root and sprout readily. Little is known about the importance of sexual reproduction in giant reed, or about its seed viability, dormancy, and germination, and seedling establishment. Research on these topics may yield some additional improvements in the management of giant reed. "  (2)"Reproduction:                                                          
Very little information is available in the literature regarding the biology of A. donax. Perdue (1958) reports that arundo does not produce viable seeds in most areas where it is apparently well-adapted, although plants have been grown in scattered locations from seed collected in Asia. Wind dispersal of seeds is facilitated by having a dense seed head on the end of a tall, flexible culm, presumably catapulting the seeds a fair distance. The importance of sexual reproduction to the species, as well as seed viability, dormancy, germination and seedling establishment, have yet to be studied and published. ... Research Needs (General):                                                
Much more information on seed biology, seedling establishment, growth patterns, and synecology needs to be gathered about arundo. ^Of great interest is the importance of sexual reproduction over vegetative propagation in the establishment of the plant in new locations. Does arundo produce viable seed in California?"
(1)http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ardo1.htm  (2)http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/arundon.rtf
6.04 (1)"Reproduction of giant reed is primarily vegetative, through rhizomes which root and sprout readily. Little is known about the importance of sexual reproduction in giant reed, or about its seed viability, dormancy, and germination, and seedling establishment. Research on these topics may yield some additional improvements in the management of giant reed. "  (2)"Reproduction:                                                          
Very little information is available in the literature regarding the biology of A. donax. Perdue (1958) reports that arundo does not produce viable seeds in most areas where it is apparently well-adapted, although plants have been grown in scattered locations from seed collected in Asia. Wind dispersal of seeds is facilitated by having a dense seed head on the end of a tall, flexible culm, presumably catapulting the seeds a fair distance. The importance of sexual reproduction to the species, as well as seed viability, dormancy, germination and seedling establishment, have yet to be studied and published. ... Research Needs (General):                                                
Much more information on seed biology, seedling establishment, growth patterns, and synecology needs to be gathered about arundo. ^Of great interest is the importance of sexual reproduction over vegetative propagation in the establishment of the plant in new locations. Does arundo produce viable seed in California?"
(1)http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ardo1.htm  (2)http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/arundon.rtf
6.05 Pollination: Uncertain, probably wind pollinated. http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/arundo_donax.htm
6.06 (1)Rapid vegetative spread rate.  (2)"Giant reed can float miles downstream where root and stem fragments may take root and initiate new infestations. Due to its rapid growth rate and vegetative reproduction, it is able to quickly invade new areas and form pure stands at the expense of other species. Once established, giant reed has the ability to outcompete and completely suppress native vegetation."  (3)"California have become infested with A. donax which has spread by flood-fragmentation and dispersal of vegetative propagules." (1)http://plants.nrcs.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=plant_attribute.cgi&symbol=ARDO4  (2)http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ardo1.htm  (3)http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/arundon.rtf
6.07 "It uses large amounts of water from its wet habitat to supply the rapid rate of growth, up to 5 cm per day in spring …" [Probably less than a year since the species mostly spreads/reproduces by vegetative means].  
7.01 (1)"Dispersal: Plants spread downstream in flooding events. Humans spread the plant in horticulture, mostly by breaking off an underground rhizome and replanting somewhere else. Machinery, such as bulldozers, can spread the plant."   (2)Local dispersal methods:  Garden escape/garden waste: Available in nursery trade. Translocation of machinery/equipment (local):  Water currents: Fragments of stems are often carried by water to new sites, where they emit roots." (1)http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/arundo_donax.htm  (2)http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=112&fr=1&sts=sss
7.02 (1)The large, thick and fluffy flower plumes are excellent in dried arrangements.  (2)"Commonly grown in Europe, China, Japan and India, because of its usefulness. Industries based on fishing-poles, paper-making, rayon-making, and musical-reeds are the most important users of the stemy of this grass. " (1)http://www.floridata.com/ref/A/arun_don.cfm     (2)http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Arundo_donax.html
7.03 Probably not - not certain whether it produces viable seeds. (1)http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ardo1.htm  (2)http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/arundon.rtf
7.04 "Reproduction:                                                                
Very little information is available in the literature regarding the biology of A. donax. Perdue (1958) reports that arundo does not produce viable seeds in most areas where it is apparently well-adapted, although plants have been grown in scattered locations from seed collected in Asia. Wind dispersal of seeds is facilitated by having a dense seed head on the end of a tall, flexible culm, presumably catapulting the seeds a fair distance. The importance of sexual reproduction to the species, as well as seed viability, dormancy, germination and seedling establishment, have yet to be studied and published. "
http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/arundon.rtf
7.05 (1)"California have become infested with A. donax which has spread by flood-fragmentation and dispersal of vegetative propagules."  (2)"Giant reed can float miles downstream where root and stem fragments may take root and initiate new infestations. Due to its rapid growth rate and vegetative reproduction, it is able to quickly invade new areas and form pure stands at the expense of other species. Once established, giant reed has the ability to outcompete and completely suppress native vegetation." (1)http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/arundon.rtf  (2)http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ardo1.htm
7.06 No evidence  
7.07 No evidence  
7.08 No evidence  
8.01 (1)"Reproduction of giant reed is primarily vegetative, through rhizomes which root and sprout readily. Little is known about the importance of sexual reproduction in giant reed, or about its seed viability, dormancy, and germination, and seedling establishment. Research on these topics may yield some additional improvements in the management of giant reed. "  (2)"Reproduction:                                                          
Very little information is available in the literature regarding the biology of A. donax. Perdue (1958) reports that arundo does not produce viable seeds in most areas where it is apparently well-adapted, although plants have been grown in scattered locations from seed collected in Asia. Wind dispersal of seeds is facilitated by having a dense seed head on the end of a tall, flexible culm, presumably catapulting the seeds a fair distance. The importance of sexual reproduction to the species, as well as seed viability, dormancy, germination and seedling establishment, have yet to be studied and published. ... Research Needs (General):                                                
Much more information on seed biology, seedling establishment, growth patterns, and synecology needs to be gathered about arundo. ^Of great interest is the importance of sexual reproduction over vegetative propagation in the establishment of the plant in new locations. Does arundo produce viable seed in California?"
(1)http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ardo1.htm  (2)http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/arundon.rtf
8.02 (1)"Reproduction of giant reed is primarily vegetative, through rhizomes which root and sprout readily. Little is known about the importance of sexual reproduction in giant reed, or about its seed viability, dormancy, and germination, and seedling establishment. Research on these topics may yield some additional improvements in the management of giant reed. "  (2)"Reproduction:                                                          
Very little information is available in the literature regarding the biology of A. donax. Perdue (1958) reports that arundo does not produce viable seeds in most areas where it is apparently well-adapted, although plants have been grown in scattered locations from seed collected in Asia. Wind dispersal of seeds is facilitated by having a dense seed head on the end of a tall, flexible culm, presumably catapulting the seeds a fair distance. The importance of sexual reproduction to the species, as well as seed viability, dormancy, germination and seedling establishment, have yet to be studied and published. ... Research Needs (General):                                                
Much more information on seed biology, seedling establishment, growth patterns, and synecology needs to be gathered about arundo. ^Of great interest is the importance of sexual reproduction over vegetative propagation in the establishment of the plant in new locations. Does arundo produce viable seed in California?"
(1)http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ardo1.htm  (2)http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/arundon.rtf
8.03 (1)"Areas infested with giant reed are best restored through chemical means. Mechanical control (e.g., repeated mowing) may be somewhat effective, but if small fragments of root are left in the soil, they may lead to reestablishment. Systemic herbicides, such as glyphosate (e.g., Rodeo®), may be applied clumps of giant reed, after flowering, either as a cut stump treatment or as a foliar spray."  (2)" The key to effective treatment of established A. donax is killing of the root mass. This requires treatment of the plant with systemic herbicide at appropriate times of the year to ensure translocation to the roots. Only one herbicide is currently labeled for wetlands use by the EPA; Rodeo®, a tradename formulation of glyphosate, produced by Monsanto Corporation. Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide which can be used on A. donax, Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar), and most other monocots and dicots. It has proven very effective against A. donax (Finn and Minnesang 1990; Jackson 1994; USDA Forest Service 1993). Other herbicides might also be used as labels and conditions allow. Monocot-specific chemicals, such as Fusilade-DX® (fluazapop-butyl) and Post® (Sethoxidan), might be particularly useful for treating A. donax in stands with a substantial component of native dicots; however, neither is currently labeled for wetlands use." (1)http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ardo1.htm  (2)http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/moredocs/arudon01.rtf
8.04 (1)High fire tolerance.  (2)"Giant reed is also highly flammable throughout most of the year, and the plant appears highly adapted to extreme fire events." (1)http://plants.nrcs.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=plant_attribute.cgi&symbol=ARDO4  (2)http://ceres.ca.gov/tadn/ecology_impacts/biology.html
8.05 (1)"Little is known about the actual effects of various pathogens and insects on the growth and reproduction of A. donax. However, numerous insects are known to feed on this species. The green bug (SCHIZAPHIZ GRAMINUM) has been observed to feed on arundo during the winter (Zuniga et al. 1983). In France PHOTHEDES DULCIS caterpillars may feed on it (Dufay 1979). ZYGINIDIA GUYUMI uses A. donax as an important food source in Pakistan (Ahmed et al. 1977). A moth borer (DIATRAEA SACCHARALIS) has been reported to attack it in Barbados (Tucker 1940). Although these insects may eventually prove to be effective in controlling arundo, it is unlikely that insects or pathogens will be introduced as controlling agents because arundo is widely cultivated as a commercial crop. "  (2)"It is uncertain what the natural controlling mechanisms for this species are in the Old World, although infestations of corn borers (Eizaguirre et al. 1990), spider mites (El-Enany 1985) and aphids  (Mescheloff and Rosen 1990) have been reported in the Mediterranean. In the United States a number of diseases have been reported on giant reed, including root rot, lesions, crown rust, and stem speckle (USDA 1960), but none seems to have seriously hindered the advance of this weed." (1)http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/arundon.rtf  (2)http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/moredocs/arudon01.rtf

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