Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Amherstia nobilis


RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTS: Low risk, score: -8


Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawai‘i.
Information on Risk Assessments

Amherstia nobilis Wall. Family - Fabaceae. Common Names(s) - The Pride of Burma.

Answer

Score

1.01

Is the species highly domesticated?

y=-3, n=0

n

0

1.02

Has the species become naturalized where grown?

y=1, n=-1

1.03

Does the species have weedy races?

y= 1, n=-1

2.01

Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) – If island is primarily wet habitat, then substitute “wet tropical” for “tropical or subtropical”

See Append 2

2

2.02

Quality of climate match data (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) see appendix 2

2

2.03

Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility)

y=1, n=0

n

0

2.04

Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climates

y=1, n=0

y

1

2.05

Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range?

y=-2, ?=-1, n=0

y

-2

3.01

Naturalized beyond native range y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2), n= question 2.05

n

0

3.02

Garden/amenity/disturbance weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

3.03

Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

3.04

Environmental weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

3.05

Congeneric weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

0

4.01

Produces spines, thorns or burrs

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.02

Allelopathic

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.03

Parasitic

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.04

Unpalatable to grazing animals

y=1, n=-1

4.05

Toxic to animals

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.06

Host for recognized pests and pathogens

y=1, n=0

4.07

Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.08

Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.09

Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.10

Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions if not a volcanic island)

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.11

Climbing or smothering growth habit

y=1, n=0

n

0

4.12

Forms dense thickets

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.01

Aquatic

y=5, n=0

n

0

5.02

Grass

y=1, n=0

n

0

5.03

Nitrogen fixing woody plant

y=1, n=0

y

1

5.04

Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs, corms, or tubers)

y=1, n=0

n

0

6.01

Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat

y=1, n=0

6.02

Produces viable seed.

y=1, n=-1

y

1

6.03

Hybridizes naturally

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

6.04

Self-compatible or apomictic

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

6.05

Requires specialist pollinators

y=-1, n=0

y

-1

6.06

Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

6.07

Minimum generative time (years) 1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 4+ years = -1

See left

2+

0

7.01

Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked areas)

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.02

Propagules dispersed intentionally by people

y=1, n=-1

y

1

7.03

Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.04

Propagules adapted to wind dispersal

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.05

Propagules water dispersed

y=1, n=-1

7.06

Propagules bird dispersed

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.07

Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally)

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

7.08

Propagules survive passage through the gut

y=1, n=-1

8.01

Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)

y=1, n=-1

n

-1

8.02

Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)

y=1, n=-1

8.03

Well controlled by herbicides

y=-1, n=1

8.04

Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire

y=1, n=-1

8.05

Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)

y=-1, n=1

Total score:

-8

Supporting data:

Notes

Source

1.01

(1)No evidence

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

1.02

1.03

2.01

(1)According to the ILDIS database, it is native to Burma, but has been introduced in India, Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

2.02

(1)According to the ILDIS database, it is native to Burma, but has been introduced in India, Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

2.03

(1)Hardiness: USDA Zone 10b: to 1.7 °C (35 °F) USDA Zone 11: above 4.5 °C (40 °F) (2)An ultra-tropical. Thrives outdoors only in warm climates.

(1)Dave's Garden. 2010. PlantFiles: Amherstia, Queen of Flowering Trees, Pride of Burma Amherstia nobilis. http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/59952/ [Accessed 25 Feb 2010] (2)Llamas, K. A. 2003. Tropical Flowering Plants. A Guide To Identification and Cultivation. Timber Press. Portland, OR.

2.04

(1)According to the ILDIS database, it is native to Burma, but has been introduced in India, Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

2.05

(1)According to the ILDIS database, it is native to Burma, but has been introduced in India, Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Thailand. (2)This plant has been said to grow in the following regions: Boca Raton, Florida Key West, Florida Mulberry, Florida Hana, Hawaii Keaau, Hawaii Dodd City, Texas (3)The species is often cultivated in Hawaii, Southeast Asia, India, Sri Lanka, and the West Indies.

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176. (2)Dave's Garden. 2010. PlantFiles: Amherstia, Queen of Flowering Trees, Pride of Burma Amherstia nobilis. http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/59952/ [Accessed 25 Feb 2010] (3)Llamas, K. A. 2003. Tropical Flowering Plants. A Guide To Identification and Cultivation. Timber Press. Portland, OR.

3.01

(1)This species was once relatively common in its native Burma; however, the current distribution and threats to its survival are unknown. (2)Extinct in wild (3)Amherstia nobilis has proved difficult to establish and propagate and presents and major horticultural challenge.

(1)Arkive. 2010. Pride of Burma (Amherstia nobilis). http://www.arkive.org/pride-of-burma/amherstia-nobilis/info.html?displayMode=factsheet [Accessed 25 Feb 2010] (2)Llamas, K. A. 2003. Tropical Flowering Plants. A Guide To Identification and Cultivation. Timber Press. Portland, OR. (3)National Research Council. 1979. Tropical legumes: resources for the future. National Academies Press. Washington, D. C.

3.02

(1)This species was once relatively common in its native Burma; however, the current distribution and threats to its survival are unknown. (2)Extinct in wild

(1)Arkive. 2010. Pride of Burma (Amherstia nobilis). http://www.arkive.org/pride-of-burma/amherstia-nobilis/info.html?displayMode=factsheet [Accessed 25 Feb 2010] (2)Llamas, K. A. 2003. Tropical Flowering Plants. A Guide To Identification and Cultivation. Timber Press. Portland, OR.

3.03

(1)This species was once relatively common in its native Burma; however, the current distribution and threats to its survival are unknown. (2)Extinct in wild

(1)Arkive. 2010. Pride of Burma (Amherstia nobilis). http://www.arkive.org/pride-of-burma/amherstia-nobilis/info.html?displayMode=factsheet [Accessed 25 Feb 2010] (2)Llamas, K. A. 2003. Tropical Flowering Plants. A Guide To Identification and Cultivation. Timber Press. Portland, OR.

3.04

(1)This species was once relatively common in its native Burma; however, the current distribution and threats to its survival are unknown. (2)Extinct in wild

(1)Arkive. 2010. Pride of Burma (Amherstia nobilis). http://www.arkive.org/pride-of-burma/amherstia-nobilis/info.html?displayMode=factsheet [Accessed 25 Feb 2010] (2)Llamas, K. A. 2003. Tropical Flowering Plants. A Guide To Identification and Cultivation. Timber Press. Portland, OR.

3.05

(1)A monotypic genus native to Myanmar…

(1)Riffle, R. L. 1998. The Tropical Look: An Encyclopedia of Dramatic Landscape Plants. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

4.01

(1)Erect unarmed tree. Leaves pinnate; leaflets oblong, acuminate, subcoriaceous, glabrous, 15 30 cm long.

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

4.02

(1)No evidence

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

4.03

(1)Erect unarmed tree. Leaves pinnate; leaflets oblong, acuminate, subcoriaceous, glabrous, 15 30 cm long. [no evidence]

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

4.04

Unknown [rare tree]

4.05

(1)No evidence

(1)Riffle, R. L. 1998. The Tropical Look: An Encyclopedia of Dramatic Landscape Plants. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

4.06

Unknown

4.07

(1)No evidence

(1)Riffle, R. L. 1998. The Tropical Look: An Encyclopedia of Dramatic Landscape Plants. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

4.08

(1)This species was once relatively common in its native Burma; however, the current distribution and threats to its survival are unknown. (2)Extinct in wild

(1)Arkive. 2010. Pride of Burma (Amherstia nobilis). http://www.arkive.org/pride-of-burma/amherstia-nobilis/info.html?displayMode=factsheet [Accessed 25 Feb 2010] (2)Llamas, K. A. 2003. Tropical Flowering Plants. A Guide To Identification and Cultivation. Timber Press. Portland, OR.

4.09

(1)Sun (2)Sun Exposure: Full Sun (3)Plant in full sun with wind shelter

(1)Riffle, R. L. 1998. The Tropical Look: An Encyclopedia of Dramatic Landscape Plants. Timber Press, Portland, OR. (2)Dave's Garden. 2010. PlantFiles: Amherstia, Queen of Flowering Trees, Pride of Burma Amherstia nobilis. http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/59952/ [Accessed 25 Feb 2010] (3)Pride of Burma. http://mgonline.com/articles/Amherstia_nobilis.aspx [Accessed 25 Feb 2010]

4.10

(1)Fertile, sandy, humus-rich, well-drained soil.

(1)Llamas, K. A. 2003. Tropical Flowering Plants. A Guide To Identification and Cultivation. Timber Press. Portland, OR.

4.11

(1)Erect unarmed tree. Leaves pinnate; leaflets oblong, acuminate, subcoriaceous, glabrous, 15 30 cm long.

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

4.12

(1)Nowadays the plant is known only in cultivation, although it is listed as indeterminate in the 1997 IUCN Red List...The database also states that the plant is not threatened, which indicates how the terms of endangerment can be interpreted by purists, or misread by conservationists. Clearly, when there have been no sightings of the plant in the wild since 1865, it has to be described as threatened, if not extinct in the wild. Mill (1995) comments on it being in need of legislative protection in its home country, the Indochinese Region: CPD Site IS16. In its natural location, the forest has become very degraded and developed, again affirming the very high level of threat posed to it.

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

5.01

(1)Terrestrial

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

5.02

(1)Fabaceae

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

5.03

(1)Fabaceae

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

5.04

(1)Erect unarmed tree. Leaves pinnate; leaflets oblong, acuminate, subcoriaceous, glabrous, 15 30 cm long.

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

6.01

(1)This species was once relatively common in its native Burma; however, the current distribution and threats to its survival are unknown. (2)Extinct in wild [apparently yet, although direct evidence is lacking]

(1)Arkive. 2010. Pride of Burma (Amherstia nobilis). http://www.arkive.org/pride-of-burma/amherstia-nobilis/info.html?displayMode=factsheet [Accessed 25 Feb 2010] (2)Llamas, K. A. 2003. Tropical Flowering Plants. A Guide To Identification and Cultivation. Timber Press. Portland, OR.

6.02

(1)Seed Collecting: Allow seedheads to dry on plants; remove and collect seeds…I took three seeds from a botanical garden in Malta,two years ago, after four weeks at 24ºC the plants came out, and now the plants are 1 m tall. It was not difficult to germinate the seeds. [but see Riffle 1998] (2)The 6-inch-long seed pods are oblong and a beautiful crimson in color, but the seeds are often inviable.

(1)Dave's Garden. 2010. PlantFiles: Amherstia, Queen of Flowering Trees, Pride of Burma Amherstia nobilis. http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/59952/ [Accessed 25 Feb 2010] (2)Riffle, R. L. 1998. The Tropical Look: An Encyclopedia of Dramatic Landscape Plants. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

6.03

(1)A monotypic genus native to Myanmar…[no evidence of inter-generic hybridization]

(1)Riffle, R. L. 1998. The Tropical Look: An Encyclopedia of Dramatic Landscape Plants. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

6.04

(1)Trees are self-sterile. Solitary trees rarely, if ever, produce viable seeds. (2)The 6-inch-long seed pods are oblong and a beautiful crimson in color, but the seeds are often inviable.

(1)Llamas, K. A. 2003. Tropical Flowering Plants. A Guide To Identification and Cultivation. Timber Press. Portland, OR. (2)Riffle, R. L. 1998. The Tropical Look: An Encyclopedia of Dramatic Landscape Plants. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

6.05

(1)In a German handbook on biology, Handbuch der Bluten-Biologie, there is the first reference to the ecology of the plant. The morphology of the flowers and the pollination system by sunbirds is described.

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

6.06

(1)Propagation Methods: By air layering [no evidence of vegetative spread]

(1)Dave's Garden. 2010. PlantFiles: Amherstia, Queen of Flowering Trees, Pride of Burma Amherstia nobilis. http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/59952/ [Accessed 25 Feb 2010]

6.07

(1)Seedlings of Amherstia nobilis or Brownea ariza require 7-8 years to flower but a layer starts flowering in the second year.

(1)Propagation of Ornamental Plants. http://www.indiaagronet.com/indiaagronet/horticulture/CONTENTS/Propagation.htm [Accessed 25 Feb 2010]

7.01

(1)Fruit a flattish, truncate pod, sub-woody, dehiscent, c. 15 cm long, 3.5 cm wide, glabrous, 4 6-seeded; seeds large, rounded-oblong, compressed. [no means of external attachment]

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

7.02

(1)often referred to as the world's most beautiful flowering tree or as the queen of flowering trees [ornamental].

(1)Riffle, R. L. 1998. The Tropical Look: An Encyclopedia of Dramatic Landscape Plants. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

7.03

(1)Fruit a flattish, truncate pod, sub-woody, dehiscent, c. 15 cm long, 3.5 cm wide, glabrous, 4 6-seeded; seeds large, rounded-oblong, compressed. [no evidence, and unlikely, given large seed and fruit size]

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

7.04

(1)The fruits, or seedpods, are 11 to 20 centimetres long. They are roughly scimitar-shaped and the woody outer case opens to disperse the seeds [apparently gravity, rather than wind-dispersed]

(1)Arkive. 2010. Pride of Burma (Amherstia nobilis). http://www.arkive.org/pride-of-burma/amherstia-nobilis/info.html?displayMode=factsheet [Accessed 25 Feb 2010]

7.05

(1)Whilst travelling along the Yoonzalin river, a tributary of the lower Salween, he spotted a solitary tree growing high up on the bank. He concluded that it was a wild tree, due to its location and the fact that no one would have been likely to have planted it on the steep bank on which he saw it growing. [possible that seed pods or seeds may float, but very limited evidence]

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

7.06

(1)Fruit a flattish, truncate pod, sub-woody, dehiscent, c. 15 cm long, 3.5 cm wide, glabrous, 4 6-seeded; seeds large, rounded-oblong, compressed. [not fleshy-fruited]

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

7.07

(1)Fruit a flattish, truncate pod, sub-woody, dehiscent, c. 15 cm long, 3.5 cm wide, glabrous, 4 6-seeded; seeds large, rounded-oblong, compressed. [no means of external attachment]

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

7.08

(1)Fruit a flattish, truncate pod, sub-woody, dehiscent, c. 15 cm long, 3.5 cm wide, glabrous, 4 6-seeded; seeds large, rounded-oblong, compressed. [unknown, although unlikely to be consumed]

(1)Lyte, B. 2003 Amherstia nobilis: plants in peril 28. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 20(3): 172-176.

8.01

(1)Trees are self-sterile. Solitary trees rarely, if ever, produce viable seeds. [unlikely to achieve such high seed densities] (2)The 6-inch-long seed pods are oblong and a beautiful crimson in color, but the seeds are often inviable.

(1)Llamas, K. A. 2003. Tropical Flowering Plants. A Guide To Identification and Cultivation. Timber Press. Portland, OR. (2)Riffle, R. L. 1998. The Tropical Look: An Encyclopedia of Dramatic Landscape Plants. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

8.02

Unknown

8.03

Unknown [no information on control]

 

8.04

Unknown

8.05

Unknown


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