Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)


Aglaonema nitidum


RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTS: Low risk, score: 0


Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawai‘i.

Research directed by C. Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service

Information on Risk Assessments
Original risk assessment

Aglaonema nitidum (Aglaonema, Silver king)

Answer

1.01

Is the species highly domesticated?

y=-3, n=0

n

1.02

Has the species become naturalized where grown?

y=-1, n=-1

n

1.03

Does the species have weedy races?

y=-1, n=-1

n

2.01

Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) – If island is primarily wet habitat, then substitute “wet tropical” for “tropical or subtropical”

See Append 2

2

2.02

Quality of climate match data (0-low; 1-intermediate; 2-high) see appendix 2

2

2.03

Broad climate suitability (environmental versatility)

y=1, n=0

n

2.04

Native or naturalized in regions with tropical or subtropical climates

y=1, n=0

y

2.05

Does the species have a history of repeated introductions outside its natural range? y=-2

?=-1, n=0

y

3.01

Naturalized beyond native range y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2), n= question 2.05

n

3.02

Garden/amenity/disturbance weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

3.03

Agricultural/forestry/horticultural weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

3.04

Environmental weed y = 2*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

3.05

Congeneric weed y = 1*multiplier (see Append 2)

n=0

n

4.01

Produces spines, thorns or burrs

y=1, n=0

n

4.02

Allelopathic

y=1, n=0

n

4.03

Parasitic

y=1, n=0

n

4.04

Unpalatable to grazing animals

y=1, n=-1

y

4.05

Toxic to animals

y=1, n=0

n

4.06

Host for recognized pests and pathogens

y=1, n=0

y

4.07

Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humans

y=1, n=0

y

4.08

Creates a fire hazard in natural ecosystems

y=1, n=0

n

4.09

Is a shade tolerant plant at some stage of its life cycle

y=1, n=0

y

4.1

Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions (or limestone conditions if not a volcanic island)

y=1, n=0

n

4.11

Climbing or smothering growth habit

y=1, n=0

n

4.12

Forms dense thickets

y=1, n=0

n

5.01

Aquatic

y=5, n=0

n

5.02

Grass

y=1, n=0

n

5.03

Nitrogen fixing woody plant

y=1, n=0

n

5.04

Geophyte (herbaceous with underground storage organs -- bulbs, corms, or tubers)

y=1, n=0

6.01

Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat

y=1, n=0

6.02

Produces viable seed.

y=1, n=-1

y

6.03

Hybridizes naturally

y=1, n=-1

6.04

Self-compatible or apomictic

y=1, n=-1

y

6.05

Requires specialist pollinators

y=-1, n=0

6.06

Reproduction by vegetative fragmentation

y=1, n=-1

n

6.07

Minimum generative time (years) 1 year = 1, 2 or 3 years = 0, 4+ years = -1

See left

7.01

Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked areas)

y=1, n=-1

n

7.02

Propagules dispersed intentionally by people

y=1, n=-1

y

7.03

Propagules likely to disperse as a produce contaminant

y=1, n=-1

n

7.04

Propagules adapted to wind dispersal

y=1, n=-1

n

7.05

Propagules water dispersed

y=1, n=-1

n

7.06

Propagules bird dispersed

y=1, n=-1

y

7.07

Propagules dispersed by other animals (externally)

y=1, n=-1

n

7.08

Propagules survive passage through the gut

y=1, n=-1

y

8.01

Prolific seed production (>1000/m2)

y=1, n=-1

n

8.02

Evidence that a persistent propagule bank is formed (>1 yr)

y=1, n=-1

n

8.03

Well controlled by herbicides

y=-1, n=1

8.04

Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation, cultivation, or fire

y=1, n=-1

n

8.05

Effective natural enemies present locally (e.g. introduced biocontrol agents)

y=-1, n=1

n

Total score:

0


Supporting data:

Source

Notes

1.01

No evidence

1.02

No evidence

1.03

No evidence

2.01

Native Habitat: Species is native to southern Burma, Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo

Horticopia A to Z. CD-ROM database.

2.02

2.03

(1)Hardiness Range 10A to 11 (2)don't like the cold weather, drafts and exposure to low temperatures. This factor alone can simply limit where you can use these tough indoor plants

(1)Horticopia A to Z. CD-ROM database. (2)http://www.plant-care.com/PlantCareTips/011402.asp

2.04

Native Habitat: Species is native to southern Burma, Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo

Horticopia A to Z. CD-ROM database.

2.05

(1) Florida, (2) Taiwan, (3) Italy

(1) Brown, B. F. (1999) Variety: 'Rhapsody in Green'. Application no: 99/038. Plant Varieties Journal, 1999, Vol.12, No.3, pp.15-16
(2) Ann, P. J. (1992) Phytophthora diseases of ornamental plants in Araceae in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 1992, Vol.1, No.2, pp.79-89, 24 ref.
(3) Tesi, R. (1983) Araceae: ornamental plants with decorative foliage. [FT: Aracee : piante ornamentali a fogliame decorativo. Colture Protette, 1983, Vol.12, No.10, pp.39-44, 2 ref.

3.01

No evidence

3.02

No evidence

3.03

No evidence

3.04

No evidence

3.05

No evidence

4.01

No evidence of any such structures.

Horticopia A to Z. CD-ROM database.

4.02

No evidence

4.03

No evidence

4.04

Oxalates [not used as a fodder]

http://www.calpoison.org/public/plants-toxic.html

4.05

No evidence

4.06

(1)Fusarium subglutinans was listed as being associated with A. nitidum. (2)'Abstract: Mango (Mangifera indica L.) malformation was first reported in Florida in 1972. Although the disease is not an important problem in the state, its incidence and severity have increased during the last several years. We recently investigated the biology and epidemiology of the disease in southern Florida (Dade County). In a series of studies, Fusarium subglutinans (Wollenweb. & Reinking) Nelson, Toussoun & Marasas comb. nov. (basionym: F. moniliforme Sheldon var. subglutinans Wollenweb. & Reinking) was always recovered from malformed panicles. In one study, it was the predominant fungus isolated from malformed 'Keitt' panicles in three different orchards; an average of 85.4% of the pedicel and peduncle tissues from malformed panicles yielded the fungus. In another study on 'Keitt', the fungus was recovered from 65.7% of the tissues from malformed shoots (primarily panicles) but from only 10% of the tissues from nonmalformed

(1)http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/all/FindRecOneFungusFrame.cfm (2)http://www.actahort.org/books/341/341_43.htm

(3) Ann, P. J. (1992) Phytophthora diseases of ornamental plants in Araceae in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 1992, Vol.1, No.2, pp.79-89, 24 ref.

4.07

lists Aglaonema spp. [oxalates and dermatitis]

http://www.calpoison.org/public/plants-toxic.html

4.08

Probably not - Evergreen perennial.

Horticopia A to Z. CD-ROM database.

4.09

(1)Exposure Partial shade or partial sun (2)Aglaonemas tolerate some shade, but near-white varieties need a well-lit spot

(1)Horticopia A to Z. CD-ROM database. (2)http://gflora.com/araceae/Aglaonema.htm

4.1

Soil Condition Loamy, neutral

Horticopia A to Z. CD-ROM database.

4.11

Probably not - not a vine.

Horticopia A to Z. CD-ROM database.

4.12

No evidence

5.01

Terrestrial

5.02

Herb

Horticopia A to Z. CD-ROM database.

5.03

Araceae

5.04

tubers?

6.01

'There is no information in the literature regarding the natural flowering habits of Aglaonema.'

Halevy A. H.Handbook of flowering. Vol V1. CRC Press. Florida.

6.02

In general for Aglaonemas 'Any environment which keeps the seeds warm and moist and provides some light should yield excellent germination. Once the seeds have germinated (after 4-8 weeks) and at least one leaf has matured, the plastic cover is removed and seedlings are transferred to the greenhouse.'

http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/FoliageDigest/v6n2.html

6.03

No evidence of natural hybridization. (1) 'However, different chromosome numbers, variable flowering times, dichogamy and apomixes are all characteristic of Aglaonema which serve to hinder breeding efforts. In spite of those difficulties, several important Aglaonema hybrids have been developed by nurserymen and hobbyists previously including: 'Silver King', 'Silver Queen', 'Fransher' and 'Parrot Jungle'. (2)Derived from an Aglaonema nitidum cross (unnamed seedling x Ernesto's Favourite), this bushy plant was selected for its leaf colouration and markings, and suckering habit. The upper side of the leaves has a mid green (RHS 137B) background colour, greyish green (RHS 191C) bands and a greyish green main vein. Rhapsody in Green is submitted for registration of plant variety rights in Australia.

(1)http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/FoliageDigest/v6n2.html (2)Brown, B. F. Variety: 'Rhapsody in Green'. Application no: 99/038. Brown, B. F. Plant Varieties Journal, 1999, Vol.12, No.3, pp.15-16

6.04

(1) However, different chromosome numbers, variable flowering times, dichogamy and apomixes are all characteristic of Aglaonema which serve to hinder breeding efforts.
(2)[ in Table 1. selfed individuals did produce seedlings]

(1) http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/FoliageDigest/v6n2.html
(2) http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/FoliageDigest/v6n11.html

6.05

In general for Aglaonemas: 'The spathe covers the spadix until anthesis (the day of flower opening) at which time it unfurls and exposes the staminate portion of the spadix. Whenever possible the inflorescence should be pollinated the same day as the spathe unfurls. Usually the spathe unfurls during the night, so flowering plants should be checked each morning for newly opened inflorescences ...'

http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/FoliageDigest/v6n2.html

6.06

No evidence

6.07

Don’t know

7.01

Probably not - no evidence that the propagules have any means of attachment.

7.02

Attractive foliage
- Border
- Container
- Ground cover
- Woodland garden

Horticopia A to Z. CD-ROM database.

7.03

Following a successful pollination, the pistillate flowers (now actually a fruit) will begin to enlarge and turn dark green. In 4-5 months following pollination the fruits turn bright red and should be harvested. [descriptions for Aglaonema hybrids, but should also apply to most species]

http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/FoliageDigest/v6n2.html

7.04

fruit a berry

7.05

no evidence

7.06

fruit a bright-collored berry

7.07

no evidence

7.08

bird-dispersed

8.01

probably not [in Table 1. a selfed individual produced 16 seedlings]

http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/FoliageDigest/v6n11.html

8.02

"The fleshy red seed coat should be removed soon after harvest and the seed planted before it shows any signs of drying."; "Any environment which keeps the seeds warm and moist and provides some light should yield excellent germination." ; "Once the seeds have germinated (after 4-8 weeks) " [descriptions for Aglaonema hybrids, but should also apply to most species]

http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/FoliageDigest/v6n2.html

8.03

No evidence that the species is being controlled for.

8.04

No evidence

8.05

No evidence


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER!


[ Return to PIER homepage ] [Risk assessment page]


This page updated 30 September 2005