Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Veronica anagallis-aquatica
L., Plantaginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: bei shui ku mai

English: blue water speedwell, brook-pimpernel, water speedwell

French: mouron d'eau

Japanese: o-kawajisha

Spanish: bérula, nomeolvides del campo

Habit:  aquatic fern

Description:  "Perennials or rarely annuals, usually glabrous, rarely sparsely glandular hairy on inflorescence axes, pedicels, calyces, and capsules. Rhizomes inclined. Stems erect or procumbent at base, branched or not, 10-100 cm tall, succulent. Leaves sessile, amplexicaul upward; leaf blade elliptic to ovate, sometime ovate-oblong, rarely lanceolate, 2-10 x 1-3.5 cm, margin entire or sparsely serrate. Racemes axillary, many flowered, longer than leaves, often less than 1 cm wide. Pedicel 4-10 mm in fruit, as long as or longer than bract, ascending, at acute angle with inflorescence axis, curved upward in fruit and thus capsule close to inflorescence axis. Calyx 4-lobed; lobes ovate-lanceolate, ca. 3 mm, equal in size, erect or patent, not appressed to capsule in fruit, apex acute. Corolla pale blue, pale purple, or white, rotate, 4-5 mm in diameter; tube short; lobes broadly ovate, slightly unequal in width. Stamens shorter than corolla. Capsule subglobose, as long as wide, slightly compressed, as long as calyx, apex rounded and slightly notched. Style 1.5-2 mm. Seeds numerous, slightly flattened, convex on both sides"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  In China, "by water or in swamps; below 4000 m"  (Flora of China online).  In New Zealand, "Common and locally abundant, river banks, lake and pool sides, ditches, swamps and other wet places"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 1206).  In Australia, "grows on banks of streams and drainage channels"  (NSW PlantNET).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m. The plant grows in water or it has its roots within a permanent water course, this corresponds to marshes, bogs, water courses, lake and river shores. Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north; some shadow, some protection against direct sunlight, some shadow from vegetation, filtering about 20-40% of light; in shadow, steep slopes facing south or a vegetation cover which filters 40-80% of light"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Azores, Canary and Madeira Islands, Europe, Africa, Asia, southern South America; exact native range obscure; naturalized in temperate regions (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 558)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1206)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Additional information:
Photos and other information from Chileflora.

Additional online information about Veronica anagallis-aquatica is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Veronica anagallis-aquatica as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Veronica anagallis-aquatica may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John. 2011. Naturalized species in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. Unpublished spreadsheet.

Belov, Michail. 2013. Chileflora (online resource).

Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido. 2006. Nouveau catalogue de la flore vaculaire de l'archipel Juan Fernández (Chile) [Nuevo catálogo de la flora vacular del Archipélago Juan Fernández (Chile)]. Acta Bot. Gallica 153(4):399-587.

National Herbarium of New South Wales. 2013. PlantNet: New South Wales Flora online. The Plant Information Network System of the Botanic Gardens Trust Version 2.0. Online resource.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Botany Division, DSIR, Christchurch. 1365 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 15 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 9 APR 2011.