Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Vallisneria spiralis
L., Hydrocharitaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: coiled vallisneria, eelgrass, eelweed, ribbon weed, tape grass, tape weed

French: vallisnerie en spirale

Habit:  aquatic herb

Description:  "An annual or a perennial, submersed, stoliniferous, dioecious plant with stems buried in mud; roots fibrous; leaves ribbon-like, sheathing base, arranged in tufts at intervals along a stolon, 1 to 7 cm broad, 1 to 6 m long, upper portion sometimes floating at the surface, 5 to 9 main longitudinal veins with fine transverse connections, acute to obtuse, edges may be finely toothed toward apex, winged at base with one wing folded over edge of next inner leaf and other wing extended; pistillate flower 1.5 to 2.5 cm long, solitary, sessile, within membranous sheath, peduncle may be up to 60 cm long as flower bud is raised to surface; spathe 1.5 to 2 cm long; sepals 3, concave, springing directly from summit of the ovary; petals 3, white, alternate with sepals, minute and scarcely visible; pistil with 3, 2-lobed nearly sessile stigmas; ovary inferior, long, cylindrical, unilocular, with mucilage-filled cavity containing numerous crowded ovules; staminate flower minute, less than 1 mm long and broad, numerous, enclosed by membranous spathe; spathe 1 to 2 cm long, terminal on a 7 cm long peduncle; perianth of 3 sepals, concave, 2 larger than the third; stamens usually 3; petals absent; fruit long, 4 mm broad, many seeds embedded in a gelatinous mass, enveloped by the persistent spathe; seed tapering, ellipsoidal, papillate, 1.5 to 3 mm long"  (Holm et al., 1997; p. 897).

Habitat/ecology:  "It is most often found in 0.5 to 3 m of water (reported to 10 m in clear water).  It is found in lakes, rivers, waterlogged swamps with open water, man-made reservoirs, and irrigation channels.  It thrives in streams but is seldom present in fast water"  (Holm et al., 1997; pp. 895, 897).

Propagation:  "Seed, winter buds, or fragments of rootstocks.  Depending on the site, season and region, one or more of the propagules may be important for this widely distributed weed"  (Holm et al., 1997; p. 898).

Native range:  India, Malaysia and Australia (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 13)
Vouchers cited: C. Imada, L. Roth, C.N. Lee 2000-1 (BISH), R. Englund s.n. (BISH 666333), C. Imada & D. Preston 2001-25 (BISH), C. Imada & D. Preston 2001-26 (BISH), C. Imada, R. Englund & D. PReston 2001-44 (BISH)
Locally naturalized and abundant.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 66)
Vouchers cited: Bougier s.n. s. loc, MacKee 43535
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 895)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 26)
In lakes and slow streams at low altitudes.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 895)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 191)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 895)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Healy, A. J./Edgar, E. (1980) (p. 26)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 895)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 895)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 895)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 21 NOV 2005 and was last updated on 26 JUN 2009.