Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ulmus pumila
L., Ulmaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yu shu

English: Chinese elm, dwarf elm, littleleaf elm, Siberian elm

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees, to 25 m tall, d.b.h. to 1 m, deciduous. Bark dark gray, irregularly longitudinally fissured. Branchlets yellowish gray, glabrous or pubescent, unwinged and without a corky layer, with scattered lenticels. Winter buds dark brown to red-brown, ± globose to ovoid; inner bud scale margin usually white ciliate. Petiole 4-10 mm, pubescent; leaf blade elliptic-ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, 2-8 x 1.2-3.5 cm, abaxially pubescent when young but glabrescent or with tufts of hairs in vein axils or sometimes a few hairs on midvein and in forks of secondary veins, adaxially glabrous, base obliquely to symmetrically obtuse to rounded, margin simply or sometimes doubly serrate, apex acute to acuminate; secondary veins 9-16 on each side of midvein. Inflorescences fascicled cymes on second year branchlets, appearing before leaves. Perianth 4-lobed, margin ciliate. Samaras whitish tan, ± orbicular to rarely broadly obovate or elliptical, 1-2 x 1-1.5 cm, glabrous except for pubescence on stigmatic surface; stalk 1-2 mm; perianth persistent. Seed at center of samara or occasionally slightly toward apex but not reaching the apical notch" (Flora of China Online).

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and woodland, disturbed sites.  This tree is fast growing and occurs in a wide range of habitats.  Seedlings may form dense thickets with hundreds of plants.  The tree can become dominant in prairies subjected to disturbances and displaces native forbs and grasses"  (Weber, 2003; p. 445).

In China (native), "slopes, valleys, plains; 1000-2500 m.  This species is cultivated throughout China" (Flora of China Online).

Propagation:  "It produces seeds abundantly which are dispersed by wind.  It sprouts vigorously from the roots"  (Weber, 2003; p. 445).

Native range:  China, Korea, Mongolia, eastern Russia; central Asia (Flora of China Online).

Presence:

Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 181)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control:  Control information from the Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group.

Physical:  "Seedlings can be hand pulled.  Larger trees may be girdled but not too deeply in order to prevent resprouting from the roots.  In fire-adapted communities, regular burning may control this tree"

Chemical:  "Stumps of cut trees can be treated with glyphosate to prevent resprouting"  (Weber, 2003; p. 445).

Additional information:
Fact sheet from the U.S. Forest Service (PDF format).

Additional online information about Ulmus pumila is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Ulmus pumila as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Ulmus pumila may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

U. S. Government. 2013. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (on-line resource).

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 26 FEB 2008 and was last updated on 22 JAN 2011.