Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Tropaeolum majus
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Tropaeolaceae


English: garden nasturtium, Indian cress, nasturtium

French: cresson d'Inde, grande capucine

Hawaiian: pohe haole

Spanish: capuchina, mastuerzo

"Glabrous, somewhat succulent annual or short-lived perennial herbs; stems usually climbing.  Leaves peltate, orbicular or more or less angled, 4-15 cm wide, ca. 9-nerved, lower surface papillose, margins entire to undulate, petioles 10-30 cm long or sometimes more.  Flowers yellow, orange, reddish orange, or red, sometimes striped and spotted, 2.5-6 cm long, spur 2.5-3 cm long, straight or curved, the lower petals deeply fringed on the claw, apex of plants usually rounded"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1295). In Hawai‘i, "often cultivated and now naturalized in mesic, disturbed areas, 850-1,350 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1295).  "Disturbed sites especially adjacent to gardens and dumps, Shrubland, herbfield, wetland, and streamsides. Tolerates salt, wind, hot to cold, semi-shade, damp, damage, and poor soil. Smothers low-growing habitats and prevents the establishment of native plant seedlings"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter; humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month).  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north; some shadow, some protection against direct sunlight, some shadow from vegetation, filtering about 20-40% of light"  (Chileflora). Seed "Native to the Andes of South America" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1295).
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 208)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 21)
"A garden escape, now naturalised in a few places". Vouchers cited: J. Pickard 2692 (NSW), J. Pickard 1213 (NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 462, 466, 558)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 462, 466, 558)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, no herbarium record.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1295)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1295)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1295)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1295)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 103)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 135)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 6111, MacKee 20609
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 146)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1259)
"occasional. Waysides and waste places, especially moist and shady situations".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 67)
Not seen by Sykes (1970) in 1965.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Belov, Michail (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1259)
"Waysides and waste places, especially moist and shady situations, also river banks and other waterways in built-up areas, and around many gardens and parks".
"Easy to control.

Physical:  Pull up all vegetation (all year round). Dispose of at a refuse transfer station or burn or bury deeply.

ChemicalSpray (spring-summer): glyphosate (10ml/L + penetrant)"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


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