Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Tribulus cistoides
L., Zygophyllaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: billygoat weed, burrnut, caltrop, caltrops, carpet weed, false puncture vine, goat's head, Jamaican feverplant, kill Bukra, Kingston buttercup, large yellow caltrop, pagode, puncture vine, turkey blossum

Hawaiian: nohu, nohunohu

I-Kiribati: te maukinikini

Spanish: abrojo, cabeza de arriero, cacho de chivo, herbe soleil, herse, pourpier-bord de mer, yerba de araña

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Prostrate trailing subshrub, branches subascending; leaves paripinnate, leaflets about 8 pairs, oblong; silky-pubescent, about 1 cm long; stipules falcate acuminate; flowers solitary, yellow, sepals 5, silky; petals 5, obovate; stamens 10, on base of annular 10-lobed disc, 5 longer ones opposite the petals, 5 shorter ones each with a dorsal gland; ovary sessile, hirsute, style short, stigmas 5; fruit of horned woody cocci, tuberculate, pubescent, partitioned within, compartments 1-seeded" (Stone, 1970; p. 349).

Habitat/ecology:  "It is mostly a plant of dry, warm, coastal areas and is found on sand beaches and coastal dunes" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 467).

In Hawai‘i, "occurring in coastal habitats, 0-50 (-100) m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1343-1344). Arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 265). In New Guinea, "a weed of roadsides, troublesome to unshod pedestrians; dangerous to livestock" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 162). In New Caledonia, "répandu et bien établi près du littoral, en bord de routes et en terrains vagues. Pourrait être indigène mais ne semble pas être signalé avant 1850" (MacKee, 1994; p. 143).

Propagation:  Seed. "Fruit is dispersed by adhering to the feet of animals and humans or vehicle and bicycle tyres. Fruit also sticks to sheep wool and is often found in hay, straw and manure" (Smith, 2002; pp. 54-55).

Native range:  "A native of tropical America" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 467).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Darwin Islands
Darwin Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Española Group
Española Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Fernandina Group
Fernandina Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Corona del Diablo Central Islet, Floreana Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Enderby Island, Floreana Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Genovesa Group
Genovesa Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Darwin, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Ecuador, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Pinta Group
Pinta Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Baltra Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Daphne Mayor Island, Santa Cruz Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Edeén Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Guy Fawkes Oeste (largest, SW) Islet, Santa Cruz Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Guy Fawkes Sur (2nd largest, SE) Islet, Santa Cruz Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Plaza Norte Islet, Santa Cruz Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Plaza Sur Islet, Santa Cruz Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Punta Bowditch Norte Islet, Santa Cruz Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Seymour Norte Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Albany Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Bainbridge #3 Rock, Santiago Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Bainbridge #4 Rock, Santiago Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Beagle Oeste Rock, Santiago Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Rábida Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.-C. Thibault 1119 (PAP), J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9388 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 601612)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: B.G. Decker 1909 (PAP)
Adventice. Common. On sand dunes in unshaded places.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island native
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: B.G. Decker 2261 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tepoto (Tepoto Sud) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tepoto Nord Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 349)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 122)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
French Frigate Shoals native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Gardner Pinnacles   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 51306)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll native
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 17)
Common in open areas and in margins of naupaka.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island native
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 11)
Scattered over entire island.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet native
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 29)
Vouchers cited: K.R. Wood et al. 9304 (BISH, PTBG, US), K.R. Wood 11536 (BISH, PTBG, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lisianski Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lisianski Island native
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 14)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Necker Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Nihoa Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Pearl and Hermes Reef native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Pearl and Hermes Reef native
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (pp. 17, 18, 21)
North Island: Perhaps the most common plant on the island. Forms mats in most vegetation types. Collected on Seal/Kittery Island. Southeast Island: Common throughout island. Large mats on west side of island.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Tern Island native
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 7)
Common everywhere.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Caroline Atoll native
Kepler, Angela K./Kepler, Cameron B. (1994) (p. 52)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Caroline Atoll   Clapp, R. B./Sibley, F. C. (1971) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Long 3245 (HAW)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll   Chock, Alvin K./Hamilton, Jr., Dean C. (1962) (p. 5)
Vouchers cited: Bergman 23, Hamilton 13, RAF Nat. Hist. Soc. (Gallagher) (BISH)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll native
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 25)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll introduced
invasive
Christophersen, Erling (1927) (pp. 25, 78)
Voucher cited: Bergman 23
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 602689)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Malden Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 76243)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Starbuck Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 51303)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Starbuck Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 76242)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Starbuck Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38233)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Enderbury Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 53)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54750 (US, HAW, K), Fosberg 55709 (US, BISH, K)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 53)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54716 (US, HAW, K)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island native
Luomala, Katharine (1951) (p. 173)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Manra (Sydney) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 53)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54857 (US, HAW, K), Bryan s.n., Bryan 37, Woodward 2564 (US), Long 2537 (US), Long & Woodward 2574 (US), Arundel 52 (K)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Manra (Sydney) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 76240)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
McKean Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 53)
Long 2044 (US), Long 2033 (US), Long 2441 (US), Fosberg 55789 (US, BISH, K)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
McKean Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 76238)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
McKean Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 76239)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
McKean Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 462627)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Nikumaroro (Gardner) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 53)
Long 2496 (US), Fosberg 55781 (US, BISH, K)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Orona (Hull) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 53)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54790 (US, HAW, K)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 122)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll native
St. John, Harold (1960) (p. 329)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 24403
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll possibly introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 12)
"Perhaps introduced accidentally with military equipment". Voucher cited: Fosberg 24403 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 38813)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
New Caledonia
Îles Chesterfield
Îles Chesterfield possibly native
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 143)
Voucher cited: Kusser in MacKee 34003
New Caledonia
Récifs D'Entrecasteaux (D'Entrecasteaux Reefs)
Île Surprise possibly native
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 143)
Voucher cited: Blanchon 428 (NOU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré possibly native
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 143)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2812
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) possibly native
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 143)
Vouchers cited: Däniker 1922, Schmid 2366 (NOU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole possibly native
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 143)
Voucher cited: Cherrier in MacKee 43792
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 579)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre possibly native
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 143)
Vouchers cited: Pancher s.n., Vieillard 271, Däniker 1185, Baumann 5169, MacKee 1985, Suprin 525 (NOU)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 449718)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) possibly native
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 143)
Voucher cited: MacKee 15774
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 579)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 162)
Common about Port Moresby.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, Barbara (year unknown)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea offshore islands
Long Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 51304)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 326)
Local in waste places, in towns, near the seashore, etc., apparently introduced.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Baker Island
Baker Island introduced
invasive
Christophersen, Erling (1927) (pp. 70, 78)
Scattered throughout the interior, particularly the northern part. Voucher cited: Christophersen 26
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Baker Island
Baker Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 51305)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Baker Island
Baker Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 637015)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Howland Island
Howland Island introduced
invasive
Christophersen, Erling (1927) (pp. 72, 78)
Single bushes scattered throughout the interior. Voucher cited: Christophersen 45
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Howland Island
Howland Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 51307)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Howland Island
Howland Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 637000)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Jarvis Island
Jarvis Island introduced
invasive
Christophersen, Erling (1927) (pp. 36, 78)
Voucher cited: Bergman 57
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Jarvis Island
Jarvis Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 51308)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Jarvis Island
Jarvis Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 637019)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island   Christophersen, E. (1931) (p. 13)
Vouchers cited: Pollock 1, Pollock 4
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island native
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 56)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Eastern Island native
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-14)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll native
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1343-1344)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island native
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-14)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Spit Island native
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-14)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 122)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 10)
Vouchers cited: Sachet 900 (US), McFarlane 1 (US)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 633240)
Taxon name on voucher: Tribulus cistoides L.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 54-55)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 54-55)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 185)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 467)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Desnoeufs Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 211)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Hunsberger, 2001).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 4 JUL 2012.