Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Tradescantia spathacea
Sw., Commelinaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Rhoeo discolor Hance ex Walp.; Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn; Tradescantia discolor L'Hér.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: zi bei wan nian qing

English: boat lily, Moses in a boat, oyster plant, rhoeo, tradescantia

French: Moïse dans les jonc, plante huitre, rhoé

I-Kiribati: te ruru ni

Maori (Cook Islands): riri, riri mangio, riri vareau

Marshallese: kiöp

Niuean: laupapaki, talotalo

Palauan: kobesos

Rakahanga-Manihiki: riri katikati, riri vareau

Spanish: barca de San Pedro, barquito de San Pedro

Tongan: fainā, fainā fa‘itoka, fainā kula

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Rosette-forming succulent herb, stems short, leaves crowded, elongate, broadly linear-lanceolate, up to 30-40 cm long and 4-6 cm wide, the upper surface green, the lower surface rich reddish-purple; inflorescence axillary, short; bracts subsessile, boat-shaped; flowers white; petals 3; stamens 6, ovary 3-celled, cells 1-ovulate; fruit capsular 3-valved; seeds rugose" (Stone, 1970; p. 105).

Habitat/ecology:  "Coastal tropical hammocks adn scrub, pinelands, disturbed sites.  Its dense clumps form a continuous cover on the floor, preventing growth and establishment of native plants.  Tree seedlings are unable to grow in these stands"  (Weber, 2003; p. 437).  Widely planted as an ornamental, often in cemeteries.  Prefers well-drained sites and will grow well on rocks.  Drought resistant.  Likes shade and will invade the forest understory. "It grows easily, preferring well drained localities, especially rocks.  It may also be grown on walls...  Sometimes it is epiphytic." (Stone, 1970; p. 105).

In Fiji, "naturalized at low elevations"; it often occurs as an epiphyte, on stone or coral walls, or on rocky cliffs"  (Smith, 1979; p. 281).  In Niue, "a dense growth now covers many rocky places near the edge of the Lower Terrace, on the west side particularly"  (Sykes, 1970; p. 225). In Tonga, "often planted in cemeteries, from where it becomes established as an escape" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 78). In New Caledonia, "commun à présent dans les jardins, parfois spontané" (MacKee, 1994; pp. 30-31).

Propagation:  Seeds, cuttings, discarded plants.  "Spreads readily by seeds and by producing numerous offshoots.  Damaged plants easily resprout from the root"  (Weber, 2003; p. 437).

Native range:  Tropical and subtropical Americas.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
American Samoa Islands
American Samoa Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 6932)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo discolor
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 108)
Garden escape.
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"This species has established itself on the Island in disturbed forest near houses". Voucher cited: J. Conran 632 (K, NSW)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 39113)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 436425)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 436451)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 561276)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 661634)
Taxon name on voucher: Tradescantia spathacea Sw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1979) (voucher ID: PTBG 22659)
Taxon name on voucher: Tradescantia spathacea
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Rakahanga Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 77)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 83)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 89)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 14)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 100)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 72)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 109800)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo discolor
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 596094)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo discolor
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 39135)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 81740)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 633454)
Taxon name on voucher: Tradescantia spathacea Sw.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 209 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 26)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 7)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 40)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46682 (US)
Probably persisting from cultivation.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 699286)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 628343)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 628348)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 281)
Voucher cited: DA 16713
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 33966)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 11046 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: St. John 14767 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: L. Dunn 421 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40987)
Taxon name on voucher: Tradescantia spathacea
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 31)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 20)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 31)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2668 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 65)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 15)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Hao (Hau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2980 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Moruroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10196 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 642080)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 39)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 15)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 16)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tenarunga Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7137 (PAP)
Ornementale subspontanée.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5764 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 581471)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 105)
Voucher cited: Stone 5610 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 436419)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 436431)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 117)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1376)
Escape from cultivation.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2012) (p. 33)
Voucher cited: OED 2010021906 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2010) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: OED 2008090401 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 19)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 80520)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abaiang Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Cultivated?
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ailinglaplap (Ailinglapalap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ailinglaplap (Ailinglapalap) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 39109)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 699287)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 2)
"Rare; few small plants near rock boarder of private home, central road, to the north, possibly remnant of more extensive planting".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 104)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Ailuk (Aelok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Ailuk (Aelok) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 33974 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Ailuk (Aelok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1951) (voucher ID: BISH 109805)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Anderson, Donald (1951) (p. vi)
Voucher cited: Anderson 3621
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 109806)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 571840)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo discolor
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 421918)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 36)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A4)
Locally abundant; used as boarder of paths and around houses on Tokewa, few homes on Mili.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0517200906
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 48)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 58703 (US)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 20-21)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45954
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 20-21)
Vouchers cited: Däniker 328, MacKee 27928
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 225)
Voucher cited: CHR 168858
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 5)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 50)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 32)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9593 (BISH)
"Introduced ornamental which has become naturalized. It is common in waste areas and especially on rocks near the sea where it occasionally forms large patches".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (pp. 13, 15)
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
cultivated
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref states "Cultivated"
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 436418)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 89)
Cultivated?
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 8)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 13)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 95)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 92)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 13)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 11, 91)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 13)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1958) (voucher ID: BNM 96)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 94)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 80)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 199)
Planted for ornamental purposes, sometimes long-persistent after cultivation but scarcely established.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
‘Uiha Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 78)
"Found throughout Tonga"
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Drake, D. R./Whistler, W. A./Motley, T. J./Imada, C. T. (1996)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 78)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15129
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 109802)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo discolor
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 456090)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-14)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 080607-17
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 98)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 7)
Potted plant seen in 1963.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 25)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 304)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 191)
As Rhoeo spathacea Stearn
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 87)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 125)
Moist shady areas.
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 38)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 32)
As Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Rivers, Julie (2004) (pp. 1, 6)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Subspontané (envahissant)"
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (pp. 9, 14)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Louisiana
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Widely planted and naturalized on Niue (Space & Flynn, 2000).

On Ma‘uke, Cook Islands, large areas of Tradescantia spathacea are growing in the forest understory, on rocks, etc. (similar to the behavior noted on Niue) (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Commonly planted (often in cemeteries) and escaping in Tonga (Space & Flynn, 2001).

Planted but not (yet) escaping in Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and scattered plants.

Chemical:  Cut down large infestations and treat the regrowth with herbicide (Weber, 2003; p. 437).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 22 JAN 2011.