Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Tinospora crispa
(L.) Hook. f. & Thomson, Menispermaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Menispermum crispum L.; Tinospora rumphii Boerl.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: bo ye qing niu dan

French: liane-quinine

Thai: bora phet, chung ching

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Deciduous vines, glabrous, often producing very long aerial roots. Old stems fleshy, with very prominent blunt tubercles. Younger stems slightly fleshy, epidermis thin, membranous, brownish, glabrous; lenticels large and prominently raised. Petiole 5-15 (-30) cm, glabrous; leaf blade broadly ovate to orbicular, 6-13 x 6-13 cm, slightly fleshy, very thinly papery when dried, both surfaces glabrous, base deeply to shallowly cordate, lobes rounded, margin entire, apex acuminate, palmately 5 (-7)-veined, abaxial basal vein axils with shallow glabrous pockets. Inflorescences racemose, unbranched or occasionally shortly branched, appearing before leaves, flowers 2- or 3-fascicled. Male inflorescences very slender, 5-10 cm or longer. Male flowers: sepals 6 in 2 whorls, green, glabrous, outer 3 ovate, ca. 1 mm, inner 3 obovate, 2.5-3 mm; petals 3-6, yellow, obovate-spatulate, 1.6-2.5 mm; stamens 6, as long as petals. Female inflorescences 2-6 cm, flowers mostly 1 per node. Female flowers: sepals and petals as in male; staminodes 6, to 1 mm; carpels 3, ca. 2 mm, stigma lobes very short. Fruiting peduncle 15-20 mm; carpophores 2-3 mm. Drupes orange, subglobose, to 2 cm when fresh; endocarp semiovoid, 11-13 x 7-9 mm, with conspicuous ridge abaxially, surface finely rugulose to almost smooth, adaxial aperture elliptic, small"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  In China (native), "open forest or shrublands"  (Flora of China online).

Propagation:  Seed and vegetatively.  "Female plants have rarely been collected, suggesting that it has largely been distributed by the vegetative propagation of male plants for medicinal purposes"  (Flora of China online).

Native range:  "Southeast Asia to central Malesia and the Philippines"  (Flora of Australia online).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Moore, Aubrey (2012)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 87)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island possibly native
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 129)
Marginal rainforest
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island probably introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
"ng on trees and over rocks on the shore-terraces. Probably introduced by immigrant workers".


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 10 OCT 2012 and was last updated on 17 OCT 2012.