Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Tecoma stans
(L.) Juss. ex Kunth, Bignoniaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Bignonia stans L.; Stenolobium stans Seem.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chuukese: peeal

English: ginger Thomas, tecoma, trumpet bush, trumpet flower, yellow bells, yellow elder, yellow trumpetbush, yellow-elder

Fijian: bitu

French: bois Caraïbe, bois fleurs jaunes, bois pissenlit, trompette d'or

I-Kiribati: nei Karairai, neikarairai

Maori (Cook Islands): tekoma

Spanish: roble amarillo, saico amarillo

Tahitian: piti, piti

Tongan: piti

Tuamotuan: piti

Tuvaluan: neikarairai

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Shrub or small tree, much branched, twigs tan or reddish tan, smooth, scarcely 4-sided; leaves opposite, pinnately compound, leaflets 1-9, usually 3-7, ovate-lanceolate, apex acuminate, base acute or obliquely acute, very shortly petiolate or subsessile, slightly hirsute on midrib and in vein axils beneath, margins irregularly serrate, leaves quite variable, rachis and petiole slender, glabrous; inflorescence an axillary or terminal raceme, pedicels short, irregularly curved or twisted, bracts reduced to minute scales, flowers rather few, calyx narrowly cylindric-campanulate, 5-7 cm long, with 5 sub-equal acuminate teeth, glabrous; corolla bright yellow, narrowly campanulate, tube narrow, about 1 cm long, throat about 2.5 cm long, dorsiventrally compressed, with 2 longitudinal folds on ventral side, 5 sub-equal spreading orbicular lobes about 8 mm long, several faint diffuse reddish lines in throat; stamens 4, attached at summit of tube, in 2 unequal pairs, included, filaments pilose at base, curved above, anthers versatile, linear, yellow, pilose, 6 mm long; sterile fifth stamen much reduced; pistil about equaling stamens, ovary narrowly cylindric, about equaling calyx, style filiform, glabrous, stigma flat, elliptic; capsule linear, compressed, 10-20 cm long, 7-8 mm wide, brown when ripe, with raised line or suture lengthwise on each flat side, tardily dehiscent along suture, septum parallel with flat sides, firm, seeds flat, oblong, 7-8 x 4 mm, with a membranous transparent wing on each end, ends of wing erose, seeds entire including wing about 20 x 6 mm"  (Fosberg et al., 1993; pp. 13-14).

Habitat/ecology:  "Tecoma stans grows best in full sunlight in disturbed areas such as roadsides"  (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 72). "Ginger-thomas does not tolerate heavy frost. However, it will grow in most well-drained soils, including calcareous fill, infertile sands, acidic Ultisols, and volcanic regolith in areas receiving from 700 to 1800 mm of rainfall. The species is described as a water spender that is able to convert to a water saver (Tipton 1994). It requires minimal competition and nearly full sunlight to survive (shade intolerant). Roadsides and disturbed areas are the most common habitats. Given a start in secondary forest, it is usually present for only 10 to 20 years following disturbance"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

In Queensland, Australia, naturalized in highly disturbed habitats, riparian vegetation, and occasionally in native vegetation on coastal sand dunes (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 200). "Can grow in dense stands inhibiting regeneration of other species" (Smith, 2002; p. 24). In New Caledonia, "se rencontre généralement en peuplements denses isolés le long de la côte Ouest. Non signalé comme planté bien que les fleurs jaunes soient jolies" (MacKee, 1994; p. 23).

Propagation:  "Seeds are dispersed by the wind and by the turbulence of passing vehicles, and are probably only viable for less than a year in the soil" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 72).

Native range:  "Southern Florida and southernmost Arizona and Texas south through the West Indies and Central America to northern Argentina.  It is also cultivated for its showy yellow flowers"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 190).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 43)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 13)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 38)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 252)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438405)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 62)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 613425)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 15)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 15)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 664506)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 664507)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 15)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 15)
Voucher: Flynn 7078 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 383)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 89)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 15)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 133865)
Taxon name on voucher: Stenolobium stans
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Nama Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 252)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 59)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L. (1993) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 60232 (US, BISH, POM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 613426)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 30)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 14)
Cultivated between Malem and Utwe. Several plants seen.
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Potential invader"
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 74)
Invasive species.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 148)
Voucher cited: DA 16858
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 33660)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 148)
Voucher cited: DA 11916
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 33661)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: R.L. Oliver & P.A. Schäfer 3261 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39535)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4397 (PAP), J. Florence 7527 (PAP), B.G. Decker 270 (PAP), B.G. Decker 281 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 554579)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12010 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: Morris 33 (US)
Rarely established.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: H.M. Smith 48
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: C.L. Cartier 136 (PAP), C.L. Cartier 232 (PAP), J. Florence 4727 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 22320)
Taxon name on voucher: Stenolobium stans
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 492441)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 696759)
Taxon name on voucher: Stenolobium stans
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: Moore 701
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 14168)
Taxon name on voucher: Stenolobium stans
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 22)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 51)
Vouchers cited: MacDaniels 1265, BRY 24836
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2281 (PAP), J. Florence 8693 (PAP), P. Birnbaum 30 (PAP)
Naturalisée. Menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1909) (voucher ID: BISH 133847)
Taxon name on voucher: Stenolobium stans
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 133853)
Taxon name on voucher: Stenolobium stans
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 133856)
Taxon name on voucher: Stenolobium stans
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 558189)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Welsh, S. L. (1998)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2979 (PAP)
Naturalisé, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491712)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 649200)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6113 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 551104)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 531)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 252)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 133866)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 389)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 389)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 389)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 31)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 31)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 76)
Some naturalization.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 252)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Voucher: Imada 2003-67 (BISH 697682)
Some naturalization.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697682)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Makin Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 252)
Cultivated?
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 252)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Some naturalization.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 99)
Reported present in 1988.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 6)
"Rare; small patch of bushes near private home in area seemingly recently cleared in forest area".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 75)
Beginning to become naturalized.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Maloelap Atoll   Imada, Clyde (2006)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A11)
Uncommon; few trees on Mili, single tree observed Nallo. Voucher 0724201010 (BISH, GUAM, PTBG)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0515200910
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
"Potential invader".
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island   Thaman, Randolph R. (1992) (p. 138)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 105)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58656 (US), Thaman & Manner 193 (SUVA), Swarbrick 9570 (BRIU)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438333)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438334)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: MacKee 5245
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Cherrier in MacKee 44059
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 100)
"Dry forests"
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 379)
Généralement en peuplements denses isolés le long de la côte Ouest.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 23)
Vouchers cited: Le Rat 2346, Däniker 20 (Z), Blanchon 793 (NOU), MacKee 12482, Jaffré 1831
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 51)
"Not seen in 1965".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 7)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 108)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9817 (BISH), Yuncker 10029 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 13)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 95)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 625613)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 625614)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 625615)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 8, 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 23)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1984) (voucher ID: PTBG 26439)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 91)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 12)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 92)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Pulo Ana Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 94)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 94)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 506)
Abundant in the gardens of the white population.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
New Britain Island   Calvert, Greg (year unknown)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
New Britain Island introduced
invasive
Calvert, Greg (year unknown)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 444)
As Stenolobium stans (L.) Seem. Rather widely distributed in cultivation although scarcely naturalized.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 439315)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 113)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Voucher: Flynn 6890 (PTBG, US)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 241)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Voucher: Flynn 6907 (PTBG, US)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 229)
Taxon name on voucher: Tecoma stans
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 241)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15200
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 13, 31)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Jourdan, Hervé/Malau, Atoloto (2008) (p. 9)
"Showing signs of invasion".
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 24)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 24)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 258)
Ornamental.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 85)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (pp. 72, 129)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Très envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. (2004) (p. 5)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 33)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 190)

Comments:  "In Australia, this species is invasive in tropical coastal areas, especially North Queensland. It is particularly problematic on the coast where it appears to be salt tolerant and can even invade into mangrove ecosystems. It is now listed as a declared noxious weed in Queensland. I have also recorded this species in New Britain (Papua New Guinea), where I observed it growing wild on a sandy beach dune system." (Greg Calvert, pers. com.).

Control: 

Chemical: "Yellow bells is highly susceptible to glyphosate...and is best controlled by cut stump application of 50% Roundup, which is much cheaper than basal bark application of Garlon 600. Pending results of field trials seedlings...should be sprayed with 2% Roundup plus Pulse in clean water" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 97).  "In Brazil, tebuthiuron was found to effectively kill plants, but picloram and 2, 4-D were not (Passini and Kranz 1997)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

Additional information:
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.
Fact sheet from "Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: thamnic descriptions" (PDF format).

Additional online information about Tecoma stans is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Tecoma stans as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Tecoma stans may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique. 2006. Current distribution and potential extent of the most invasive alien plant species on La Réunion (Indian Ocean, Mascarene islands). Austral Ecology (2006) 31, 747-758.

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1909. Voucher specimen #BISH 133847 (Leland, B. 2).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 133853 (Quayle, E.H. 18).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 14168 (Moore, J.W. 701).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 133856 (MacDaniels, L.H. 1265).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 133865 (Wilder, G.P. 858).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 133866 (Fosberg, F.R. 35586).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1959. Voucher specimen #BISH 33661 (Koroiveibau, D. 11916).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1962. Voucher specimen #BISH 696759 (Murray, E. 78).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 22320 (Smith, H.M. 48).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 33660 (Smith, A.C. 16858).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 438333 (Fosberg, F.R. 58656).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 438334 (Fosberg, F.R. 58656).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 438405 (Fosberg, F.R. 58309).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1979. Voucher specimen #BISH 439315 (Cox, P.A. 317).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 613425 (Fosberg, F.R. 59929).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 613426 (Fosberg, F.R. 60232).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491712 (Florence, J. 2979).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 554579 (Florence, J. 4397).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 492441 (Florence, J. 4727).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 551104 (Florence, J. 6113).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 649200 (Fosberg, F.R. 50 m).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 558189 (Florence, J. 8693).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 664506 (Sykes, W.R. 474582).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 664507 (Sykes, W.R. 474583).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 625613 (A.K.Kepler 92-131).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 625614 (A.K.Kepler 92-131).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 625615 (A.K.Kepler 92-131).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 2003. Voucher specimen #BISH 697682 (C.Imada 2003-67).

Calvert, Greg. 0. Greg Calvert, pers. com.

Calvert, Greg. 0. Greg Calvert, pers. com.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

Délégation à l'Environnement/Délégation à Recherche. 2001. Les plantes envahissantes en Polynésie Française. French Polynesia. 2 p. folder.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1957. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 58. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 37 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. The Smithsonian Institution. Atoll Research Bulletin 294:1-70.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L. 1993. Flora of Micronesia. Part 5. Bignoniaceae--Rubiaceae. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 81: 1-135.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Francis, John K., ed. 2009. Wildland Shrubs of the United States and its Territories: Thamnic Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-1 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry and Shrub Sciences Laboratory (online resource).

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Imada, Clyde. 2006. Flora of the Marshall Islands: Maloelap Atoll. Species determinations by Clyde Imada, Bishop Museum Herbarium, Hawai‘i. Unpublished checklist, 2 pp.

Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 4. R233;union. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-4E. 37 pp.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Palau. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 44 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. 1991. Effects of alien plant invasions on native vegetation remnants on La Reunion (Mascarenes Islands, Indian Ocean). Environmental Conservation 18 (1):51-61.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. 1989. An Annotated list of the vascular plants of Pulawat Atoll. Micronesica 22:23-63.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 3 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 628 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves/Jourdan, Hervé/Malau, Atoloto. 2008. Recent incursions of invasive animal and plant species in the small and remote archipelago of Wallis and Futuna (South Pacific): "La maison brûle mais nous regardons ailleurs". In: Aliens 27: 8-9.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG229(Tim Flynn 6907).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG241(Tim Flynn 6890).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG383(Tim Flynn 7078).

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Smith, Albert C. 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 5. 626 pp.

Smith, Nicholas M. 2002. Weeds of the wet/dry tropics of Australia - a field guide. Environment Centre NT, Inc. 112 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 51 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 34 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. 2004. Report to the Republic of Kiribati on invasive plant species on the islands of Tarawa, Abemama, Butaritari and Maiana. Cont. no. 2003-006 to the Pac. Biol. Surv. USDA Forest Service and Bishop Museum, Honolulu. 103 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 41 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. 2005. A tropical garden flora: plants cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and other tropical places. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 908 pp.

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Sykes, Bill. 0. Bill Sykes, pers. com.

Sykes, W. R. 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200, Wellington. 321 pp.

Thaman, R. R. 1987. Plants of Kiribati: a listing and analysis of vernacular names. Atoll Res. Bull. 296:1-42.

Thaman, R. R. 1990. Kiribati agroforestry: trees, people and the atoll environment. Smithsonian Institution, Atoll Research Bulletin 333:1-30.

Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. 1994. The flora of Nauru. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Research Bulletin 392:1-223.

Thaman, Randolph R. 1992. Vegetation of Nauru and the Gilbert Islands: Case studies of poverty, degradation, disturbance, and displacement. Pac. Sci. 46(2):128-158.

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Vander Velde, Nancy. 0. Nancy Vander Velde, pers. com.

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Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

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Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Prepared for Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and the U. S. Army Environmental Center. 111 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 126 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 5 JAN 2010.