Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Syzygium cumini
(L.) Skeels, Myrtaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific)).
Reject, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. Florida)).

Other Latin names:  Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: duhat

Chinese: wu mo

English: jambolan plum, jambool, jambu, Java plum

Fijian: kavika ni India

French: faux pistachier, jamblon, jambolanier, jamelongue, jamélongue, jamelonguier, jamelonier, prunier de java

Hindi: jaman, jammun

Mangarevan: pistas

Maori (Cook Islands): ka‘ika, kaika, paramu, pisat, pistāita, pistati, pītāti

Palauan: mesegerak, mesekerrák, mesekerrak, mesigerak

Samoan: nonu fi‘afi‘a

Spanish: guayabo pesgua, yambolana

Tahitian: pistas

Habit:  tree

Description:  "A tree to 20 tall with scaly gray bark; leaves opposite, dark green, 5-15 cm long, 2.5-8 cm wide, acuminate, elliptic-oblong, narrow; petioles 1-2.5 cm long; flowers in cymose clusters, axillary or in axils of fallen leaves, white or pink, 12 mm wide; calyx 4-6 mm wide, up to 8 mm long; petals caducous; stamens many (c. 50), exserted, white or pinkish, to 7 mm long; fruit oblong, 2-2.5 cm long, deep purplish-black, juicy; seed 1, large, green" (Stone, 1970; p. 447).

Habitat/ecology:  This large evergreen tree forms a dense cover, excluding all other species. Although it is not an aggressive invader of undisturbed forest like the closely related roseapple (Syzygium jambos), it prevents the reestablishment of native lowland forest. It is found in dry to mesic and more rarely wet lowland areas up to 700 m in Hawai‘i (C. W. Smith, 1985; p. 189), up to 1200 m in French Polynesia.  "Invades mesic valleys, especially along stream banks, and provides deep shade"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  In Fiji, "cultivated near sea level or perhaps rarely naturalized in forest"  (A. C. Smith, 1985; pp. 327-328). In New Caledonia, "est commun, planté et naturalisé" (MacKee, 1994; p. 108).

Propagation:  The large black fruit are dispersed by frugivorous birds and perhaps occasionally by feral pigs (Sus scrofa).

Native range:  Indo-Malaysian.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 89)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 164823)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 14931)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 327-328)
Vouchers cited: DA 11939 (DF 19, Watkins 688)
Perhaps rarely naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 327-328)
Vouchers cited: DA 3406, DA 188, DA 7608, DA 6021, DA 10523, DA 12353, DA 821, DA 3316
Perhaps rarely naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 14930)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1961) (voucher ID: BISH 14932)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 11085 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.-C. Thibault 1048 (PAP), J. Florence , S.P. Perlman & M. Teikiteetini 9357 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
"Planté, se naturalise, surtout en bordure de rivière".Voucher cited: J. Florence 7433 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 545499)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1000522)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4136 (PAP)
Menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491151)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11708 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643633)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 201-202)
Voucher cited: BRY 25426
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 53)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & Sachet 64966 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   University of California (2006)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 201-202)
Voucher cited: BRY 26543
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 81)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6602 (PAP)
Naturalisée. Menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 554223)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 554224)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9030 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 560428)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10114 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 633770)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 15)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 31)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 447)
Voucher cited: Stone 4281 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 189)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 164973)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 975)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 975)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 975)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 975)
Voucher cited: Faurie 55 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 975)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 975)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 106)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2558
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 106)
Vouchers cited: Le Rat 254, Godefroy 81, Baumann 9891, MacKee 2084, MacKee 23422, MacKee 29744, MacKee 37916
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 166886)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 134)
Voucher cited: CHR 170461
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 25)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 15)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 189)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 32)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2006) (voucher ID: BNM 1219)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium cumini Druce
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2005) (voucher ID: BNM 216)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium cumini (L.) Druce
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 189)
Cultivated?
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 164927)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 164929)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 166986)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Aulupse‘el (Ulebsechel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 189)
Cultivated?
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerukuid (Ngerukeuid, Seventy) Islands   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerukuid (Ngerukeuid, Seventy) Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 540102)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 164)
Planted and in many regions spontaneous. In all probability a prehistoric introduction from Malaya.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 418005)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 418007)
Taxon name on voucher: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 202-203)
Cited: Cartwright.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 164)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 83)
Naturalised
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (pp. 70-71, 128)
May naturalize.
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/subspontané"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée, potentiellement envahissant.
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée, potentiellement envahissant.
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 129)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Very invasive in the Cook Islands and on Raiatea, French Polynesia.

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and young plants.  "Goats browse on Java plum plants (An Peishel)"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Chemical:  "Sensitive to foliar application of triclopyr and very sensitive to picloram.  Saplings up to 10 feet tall were susceptible to drizzle applications of triclopyr ester in crop oil at 1 lb/acre.  Sensitive to cut-surface applications (to drilled holes) of 2,4-D, dicamba, glyphosate, and triclopyr, and to basal bark and stump bark applications of triclopyr, 2,4-D, and imazapyr.  If Florida, basal bark applications of triclopyr ester at 10% product in oil, cut-surface applications of triclopyr amine at 50% product in water, and with triclopyr ester at 10% product in water were all effective.  Large trees have thick bark that makes basal bark treatments ineffective"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Photos and additional information at University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Fact sheet from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" (PDF format).
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Information from the book "Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas" (PDF format).

Additional online information about Syzygium cumini is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Syzygium cumini as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Syzygium cumini may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 2005. Voucher specimen #BNM216(Costion 216).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 2006. Voucher specimen #BNM1219(Costion 1219).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 164823 (Wilder, G.P. 1016).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 164927 (Kanehira, R. 472).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 164929 (Hosokawa, T. 7134).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1941. Voucher specimen #BISH 166986 (Hosokawa, T. 9774).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1948. Voucher specimen #BISH 166886 (Buchholz, J.T. 1772).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1956. Voucher specimen #BISH 14930 (Parham, J.W. 10523).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1961. Voucher specimen #BISH 14932 (Pillay, S. 12353).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1962. Voucher specimen #BISH 14931 (Cottle, G.W. 13270).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1962. Voucher specimen #BISH 164973 (Stone, B.C.M. 4281).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 418005 (Whistler, W.A. W 2112).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 418007 (Whistler, W.A. W 2120).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491151 (Florence, J. 4136).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 554223 (Florence, J. 6602).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 554224 (Florence, J. 6602).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 545499 (Florence, J. 7433).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 540102 (Raulerson, L. 16720).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 560428 (Florence, J. 9030).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000522 (W.L.Wagner 6214).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 633770 (Florence 10114).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 643633 (Florence 11708).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Délégation à l'Environnement/Délégation à Recherche. 2001. Les plantes envahissantes en Polynésie Française. French Polynesia. 2 p. folder.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Unpublished database and supplement to: Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. The Smithsonian Institution. Atoll Research Bulletin 294:1-70.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. 1983. List of the recorded vascular flora of Agalega. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Hunsberger, A. G. B. 2001. Invasive and banned plants of Miami-Dade County. U. of Fl. Extension. 3 pp.

Langeland, K. A./Burks, K. Craddock. eds. 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 pp.

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Little, Elbert L./Skolmen, Roger G. 1989. Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced). USDA Agriculture Handbook 679. Washington, D.C. 377 pp. + plates.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 30 DEC 2011.