Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Suriana maritima
L., Surianaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate; score: 2 (Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment for Suriana maritima)

Other Latin names:  (no species-level synonyms found)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: bay-cedar

Fijian: ngingia

Tongan: ngingie

Ulithian: wao

Habit:  shrub/tree

Description:  "Shrub or small tree up to 3 m. or more tall, the younger parts and leaves finely pubescent. Leaves alternate but closely spaced, simple, linear-spatulate, very shortly acutish, gradually narrowed to short petiole, up to about 3 cm. long and 3-5 mm. wide. Flowers yellow, in subterminal, racemose clusters, petals about 8 mm. long; capsule five-parted, pubescent." (Plants of Tonga, p. 154)

"As it sparingly occurs in Fiji, Suriana maritima is found. . .as a shrub or small tree 1-4 m. high, sometimes with a trunk to 8 cm. in diameter. A short, gray, often glandular indument covers most parts of the plant. The sessile, congested leaves have narrowly obovate-oblong blades usually 15-30 &mult; 2-5 mm. The inconspicuous inflorescences bear flowers scarcely 1 cm. long, with lemon-yellow petals shorter than the calyx lobes. The brownish, inconspicuous drupes are concealed by the persistent calyx. Flowers and fruits have been noted beteen [sic] August and February." (Flora Vitiensis nova, vol 3, p. 488)

Habitat/ecology:  "Habitat: Beaches and sandy coastal thickets, it is not found inland; highly salt-resistant and drought-tolerant." (Buckley 2015)

"Like the Coconut Palm, the seeds of Bay Cedar (although very much smaller) can germinate on distant beaches after spending long periods in saltwater. . . ." (Buckley 2015)

In Tonga, "forming thicket near beach"; "in sandy soil just above high-tide limit"; "in thin soil on rocky cliff"; "on coral sand, coast"; "[c]ommon in strand thickets on most of the islands of Tonga." (Plants of Tonga, p. 154)

"As it sparingly occurs in Fiji, Suriana maritima is found near sea level on sandy calcareous beaches or on rocky cliffs as a shrub or small tree. . . ." (Flora Vitiensis nova, vol 3, p. 488)

Propagation:  (no propagation information known by PIER)

Native range:  "The bay cedar [PIER ed.: Suriana maritima] is endemic to south Florida, the Caribbean, Central America, and the Bahamas. . . ." (Gilman 1999)

Impacts and invaded habitats:  (no invaded habitats or impacts known by PIER; please let us know if you know of such information we should add here)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Saipan
Maniagassa Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Federated States of Micronesia
Federated States of Micronesia
Fassarai Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Federated States of Micronesia
Ulithi
Mwagmwog   Lessa, William A. (1977) (p. 160)
specimen cited: Mogmog I., Lessa No. 16, 1947; det . M. Neal. "USES IN ULITHI A shrub used for house posts, adze handles , frames for lobster nets, canoe struts, bars connecting outrigger booms to the float, and firewood. Its bark has medicinal uses, as in the treatment of mathekh il si, or stomach pains due to either a spirit , bad food, intestinal worms, or agressive thoughts."
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fulanga Island Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 488)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kambara Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 488)
as "Kandavu Lailai islet off the Lautoka coast"
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Navutu-i-ra Island Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 488)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Nayau Island Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 488)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vatulele Island Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 488)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Wailagi Lala (Wailangilala) Atoll Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 488)
as "Wailangilala Island"
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yacata Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yathata Island Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 488)
French Polynesia
French Polynesia Islands
French Polynesia Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Kiribati
Kiribati
Bangai   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
Aikini Islet   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Wotho (Wõtto) Atoll   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Aur Atoll native
St. John, Harold (1951) (p. 283)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Pacific
Polynesia
Polynesia (U.S.-administered islands)   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Palau
Koror
Arimasuku Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngemelis Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea offshore islands
Gabugabutau Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Samoa
Samoa
Samoa   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Nu‘ulua Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 154)
Voucher cited: 15982; also, source: Harvey; ref. doesn't say whether native or not
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
‘Uoleva Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 154)
"Common in strand thickets on most of the islands of Tonga."
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 154)
Voucher cited: 15594; ref. doesn't say whether native or not
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 154)
Voucher cited: 15193; ref. doesn't say whether native or not
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 154)
Voucher cited: Hüaut;rlimann 628; ref. doesn't say whether native or not
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava'u (nearby islets)   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 154)
Source: Crosby; ref. doesn't say whether native or not
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
GRIN (year unknown)
Southern Mexico: "Campeche, Quintana Roo, Veracruz, Yucatan"
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Caribbean Islands
Caribbean Islands
Caribbean Islands native
GRIN (year unknown)
"Caribbean: Anguilla ; Antigua and Barbuda ; Cayman Islands ; Cuba ; Dominica ; Dominican Republic ; Grenada ; Guadeloupe ; Haiti ; Jamaica ; Martinique ; Montserrat ; Puerto Rico ; Virgin Islands (British) ; Virgin Islands (U.S.)"
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
GRIN (year unknown)

Comments:  ". . .it [PIER ed.: Suriana maritima] it sparingly occurs in Fiji. . . ." (Flora Vitiensis nova, vol 3, p. 488)

Control:  (control info not known by PIER)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 12 SEP 2017 and was last updated on 21 MAY 2018.