(Nees) T. Anderson, Acanthaceae
Present on Pacific Islands? no
Primarily a threat at high elevations? no
Risk assessment results: Evaluate, score: 4 (Go to the risk assessment)
Other Latin names: Goldfussia glomerata Nees
Common name(s): [more details]
Chinese: qiu xu ma lan
Description: "Subshrubs to 1 m tall, strongly anisophyllous. Stems and branches 4-angled to subterete, setose. Petiole 0.6-3 cm, densely pubescent; leaf blade elliptic, broadly elliptic, or narrowly ovate, 5.5-19 x 2.7-10 cm, smaller of pair ca. 1/5 size of larger one, both surfaces densely pubescent with purplish trichomes, secondary veins 5-7 on each side of midvein, base oblique, rounded, and decurrent onto petiole, margin serrate with shallow widely spaced teeth and ciliate with red multicellular trichomes, apex acuminate. Inflorescences capitate; bracts variable in size and shape; outer bracts sterile, lanceolate, ca. 3 x 0.6 cm, densely pubescent with purplish trichomes, margin serrate; inner bracts lanceolate, ca. 1.6 x 0.4 cm, margin entire and ciliate, apex acuminate; bracteoles lanceolate, 8-12 x ca. 2 mm, pubescent. Calyx ca. 1.5 cm, 5-lobed almost to base; lobes 10-13 x ca. 1.5 mm, slightly unequal, outside pubescent with purplish trichomes especially apically, inside glabrous. Corolla purple, 4-6 cm, subventricose, outside pubescent with gland-tipped trichomes, inside glabrous except for trichomes retaining style; tube basally cylindric and ca. 2 mm wide for 0.6-1.6 cm then bent to ca. 90° and gradually widened to ca. 1.7 cm at mouth; lobes ovate, ca. 4 x 7 mm, apex retuse. Stamens 4, included; filaments glabrous, shorter pair ca. 1.5 mm, longer pair 7-9 mm and unequal; anther thecae obliquely ellipsoid, ca. 1.5 mm; pollen type 3. Ovary glabrous; style ca. 3 cm, glabrous. Capsule fusiform, ca. 12 x 3 mm, glabrous, 4-seeded. Seeds ovate in outline, ca. 2 x 2 mm, densely pubescent; areola small" (Flora of China online).
"Shrubby herb to 2 m high. Stems and leaves hairy. Leaves elliptical but asymmetrical at base, to 15 cm long and 6.5 cm broad. Flowers about 5 cm long, purplish blue, crowded in short axillary spikes" (Iremonger, 2002; p. 82).
Habitat/ecology: In China (native), "forests; 1000-1500 m" (Flora of China online). In Jamaica, "forms thickets at pathsides in sheltered places, 1060 to 1690 m (3500 to 5,050 feet)" (Iremonger, 2002; p. 82). "Widely naturalized in Jamaica on path sides and streamside banks between 1100 and 1700 m elevation" (Meyer & Lavergne, 2004; p 338).
Native range: India, Myanmar and China (GRIN).