Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Stictocardia tiliifolia
(Desr.) Hallier f., Convolvulaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: abubo

Chinese: xian ye teng

English: crimson morning-glory, stictocardia

Hawaiian: pilikai

Samoan: pālulu, pālulu, tagamimi, tagamimi, tanamimi

Spanish: soguilla

Tongan: pula vaine

Habit:  vine

Description:  "A large woody twiner, pubescent but glabrescent; leaves broadly ovate to orbicular, 6-20 x 5-20 cm, cordate at base, shortly acuminate with a usually obtuse mucronulate apex; inflorescences axillary, of 1-2-3 flowers; sepals orbicular with a rounded or shallowly emarginate apex, subequal or the inner ones slightly shorter, 12-18 mm long, much enlarged in fruit and then up to 4-5 cm long.  Corolla funnel-shaped, 8-10 cm long, reddish purple with a darker center; ovary glabrous; filaments hairy at base; capsule enclosed by the enlarged sepals, 2-3.5 cm in diameter.  Seeds 8-9 mm long, black to dark brown, pubescent"  (Stone, 1970; p. 497).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and sparingly naturalized in dry, disturbed sites, 3-220 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 564).  "Occasional climbing in low vegetation in disturbed places"  (Whistler, 1988; p. 15).

Propagation:  Seed. The seeds appear to be dispersed by ocean currents (Smith, 1991; pp. 52-53).

Native range:  "Now circumtropical, apparently originally from Africa or Asia, cultivated widely and introduced into the New World" (Smith, 1991; pp. 52-53).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Garber 999, Whistler 3462
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 59)
Voucher cited: Garber 999 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3065
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 229)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 38)
As Stictocardia campanulata (L.) Merrill. Voucher cited: Fosberg 31696 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 229)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 38)
As Stictocardia campanulata (L.) Merrill. Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1706 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58931
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59172
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 58)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 229)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 229)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 38)
As Stictocardia campanulata (L.) Merrill. Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1761 (US), Kanehira 2170 (NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58893
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 58)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Wolf, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 47555)
Taxon name on voucher: Stictocardia tiliifolia
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island native
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 52-53)
Voucher cited: Guppy (K)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 52-53)
Voucher cited: Greenwood 306
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 497)
Voucher cited: Stone 4955 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 229)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 564)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 564)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 564)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 564)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 564)
Voucher cited: Mann & Brigham 42 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre native
Heine, Heino (1984) (p. 44)
Vouchers cited: Balansa 543, Balansa 1056, Balansa 3353, Däniker 1660, MacKee 16896, MacKee 21946, MacKee 23941, MacKee 25228, MacKee 35001, MacKee 35156, Schmid 1994
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 229)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 372)
In thickets and secondary forests at low altitudes, often along the seashore and tidal streams.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 15)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 228-229)
Voucher cited: Setchell & Parks 15176
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 18)
Vouchers cited: cRosby 127, Soakai 774
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 228-229)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 16052
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34450)
Taxon name on voucher: Stictocardia tiliifolia (Desr.) Hall. f.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 66)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Seashore thickets, forests; below 100 m. Hainan.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Seashore thickets, forests; below 100 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Timor-Leste
Timor-Leste
East Timor Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 16)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 26 OCT 2006.