Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Stenotaphrum secundatum
(Walter) Kuntze, Poaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 6 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
High risk, score: 15 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ce dun ye cao

English: buffalo grass, crabgrass, St. Augustine grass

French: chiendent de boeuf, courre à terre, fransawi

Hawaiian: ‘aki‘aki haole, mānienie ‘aki‘aki, mānienie ‘aki‘aki haole, mānienie māhikihiki

Spanish: cañamazo, gramilla, gramillón, pasto colchón, pasto San Augustín, yerba de San Agustín

Tongan: sipilini

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Extensively creeping perennials, stolons with long internodes and short leafy branches; flowering culms ascending, 1-3 dm tall, branched, glabrous, compressed.  Leaves subopposite and equitant, except in the upper part of flowering branches; sheaths 3-6 cm long, compressed, keeled, pale at base, usually membranous on margins, sparsely villous at throat and on collar, otherwise glabrous; ligule ciliate, usually less than 0.5 mm long; blades firm, stiff, 3-30 cm long, 3-10 mm wide, upper surface scabrous, lower surface glabrous, apex rounded, more or less split.  Racemes 3-8 cm long, terminal and sometimes axillary; spikelets usually in pairs, rarely solitary or in threes; 5-6 mm long, pedicels 2-4 mm long, glabrous; first glume minute, scale-like, up to 1 mm long, second glume 5-6 mm long, 7-9-nerved; first lemma firm, 5-6 mm long, faintly 3-5-nerved; second lemma 4-5 mm long, faintly 5-7-nerved, abruptly acuminate; palea membranous, ovate, 4-5 mm long, chartaceous, glabrous, apex acute, margins inrolled.  Caryopsis dark brown, ovoid, plano-convex, ca. 1.5 mm long" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1598).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Wetland forests, coastal grass- and heathland, coastal dunes, disturbed sites.  Where native, this grass is found in moist swampy soils, motly near the coast.  The plant forms long stolons and stems root easily at the lower nodes.  It is frost tolerant and withstands salt spray.  Stems can climb 1-2 m tall and smother small shrubs.  Growth and regeneration of native shrubs and trees is impeded in areas invaded by this grass"  (Weber, 2003; p. 422).  "Uncommon in lawns and sunny waste places"  (Whistler, 1988; p. 57).

In Hawai‘i, "commonly used as a lawn grass and naturalized on beaches, dunes and along roadsides, 0-1,300 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1598).  In Fiji, "it is regarded as a weed of roadsides, etc.  It is moderately common from sea level to about 850 m, on the upper part of beaches, on waste land, and along roadsides" (Smith, 1979; p. 354).  In Tonga, "presumable...introduced as a lawn grass, but it is becoming established"  (Yuncker, 1959; p. 57). In New Caledonia, "cultivé en gazons; souvent spontané en lieux humides" (MacKee, 1994; p. 63).

Propagation:  "It usually does not set seeds where introduced.  It spreads quickly by means of vegetative growth, forming dense mats that eliminate all other species"  (Weber, 2003; p. 422).

Native range:  Both sides of the Atlantic (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1598).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 44176)
Taxon name on voucher: Stenotaphrum secundatum
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 205)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"Introduced as a pasture and lawn grass, and now common, especially on coastal cliffs and swards. Because of its invasive and blanketing habit is a threat to native species". Vouchers cited: L.M. Bingley 4 (K, NSW), R.D. Hoogland 8649 (CANB, NSW), A.C. Beauglehole 5458 (CANB, MEL)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"Introduced as a pasture and lawn grass, and now common, especially on coastal cliffs and swards. Because of its invasive and blanketing habit is a threat to native species". Voucher cited: I. Robinson (NSW)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kanathea Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 354)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 354)
Voucher cited: C. R. Turbet 1
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mango Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 354)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 354)
Voucher cited: DA 8916
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 354)
Vouchers cited: DA 5704, DA 8830
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 354)
Voucher cited: DA 10230
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 354)
Vouchers cited: DA 2103, DA 17332, Smith 9612, DA 3007, DA 1667
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Voucher cited: K. R. Wood 10110 (BISH, P, PAP, PTBG, US)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40186)
Taxon name on voucher: Stenotaphrum secundatum
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Voucher cited: L. M. Dunn 217 (BISH, P, PAP, PTBG, US)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 346)
Stenotaphyrum dimidiatum (L.) Brogn., vouchers cited: Moore 543, BRY Stenotaphyrum dimidiatum (L.) Brogn., voucher cited: BRY 25437
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12075 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11670 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 346)
Stenotaphyrum dimidiatum (L.) Brogn., vouchers cited: Fosberg 61025, Fosberg 62865
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: C.L. Cartier 145 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 346)
Stenotaphyrum dimidiatum (L.) Brogn., vouchers cited: Moore 543, BRY 26468a
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 346)
Stenotaphyrum dimidiatum (L.) Brogn., vouchers cited: Moore 543, BRY Stenotaphyrum dimidiatum (L.) Brogn., voucher cited: Florence 5272
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 346)
Stenotaphyrum dimidiatum (L.) Brogn., vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 108, Fosberg 62865
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: P. Birnbaum 44 (PAP). As Stenotaphrum dimidiatum (Thunberg) Brongn.: Voucher cited: J. Florence 2282 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3255 (PAP), J.-F. Butaud 287 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 346)
Stenotaphyrum dimidiatum (L.) Brogn., vouchers cited: Moore 543, BRY Stenotaphyrum dimidiatum (L.) Brogn., voucher cited: Sachet 1991
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Sachet 1991 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: M.-H. Sachet 1991 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 16)
Adventice d'introduction européene.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Stenotaphrum dimidiatum (Thunberg) Brongn. Voucher cited: J. Florence 5637 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 61)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1598)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1598)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1598)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, R. T. (2000) (pp. 7-8)
East Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H99913 (BISH), Oppenheimer H99914 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 11)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H50005 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1598)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1598)
Voucher cited: Mann & Brigham 401 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 17)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Presence not verified.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 61)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 63)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 63)
Voucher cited: Cribs 1242
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 592)
"Usually coastal, often on banks; margins of hot springs".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 178)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 108)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 61)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 57)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 111)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 102)
Vouchers cited: Lawrence 268, Soakai 280, Soakai 708
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 293
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1598)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-14)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 12, 28)
Stenotaphrum dimidiatum. Cette herbe est localement naturalisée en sous-bois de forêt secondaire et en bordure de piste.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 137)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 8)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 137)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 137)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 592)
"Usually coastal, often on banks; margins of hot springs".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 81)
Naturalised
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. plate)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 25)

Control:  For additional control information see the information sheet from Weedbusters New Zealand.

Physical:  "Trailing stems at the edge of infestations can be pulled out.  Small patches are dug out, all rhizomes and creeping stems must be removed.  An effective control is solarization by covering infestations with plastic sheeting for 4-12 weeks".

Chemical:  "Herbicides used to control this grass include glyphosate, dalapon or 2,2-DPA"  (Weber, 2003; p. 422).

Additional information:
Photos and additional information at the Environment Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, web site of the Bay of Plenty Regional Council.
Information sheet from Weedbusters New Zealand.

Additional online information about Stenotaphrum secundatum is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Stenotaphrum secundatum as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Stenotaphrum secundatum may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Cardenas, Juan/Reys, Carlos E./Doll, Jerry D./Pardo, Fernando. 1972. Tropical weeds; malezas tropicales, vol. 1. International Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 341 pp.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Edgar, E./Connor, H. 2000. Flora of New Zealand, vol. V: Gramineae. Manaaki Whenua Press. .

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesica 20:1-126.

Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar. 1980. Grass weeds, vol. 1. CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 142 pp. + plates.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie. 2008. Rapport de mission sur l'atoll de Raro‘ia (Tuamotu Centre) du 12 au 19 Octobre 2008: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire. de l'avifaune terrestre & marine, et recommandations de conservation et de gestion [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 24 pp.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, R. T. 2000. New plant records from Maui, O‘ahu, and the Hawai‘i Islands. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1999. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 64:1-10.

Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. 2002. New plant records from the main Hawaiian Islands. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2000. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 69:1-14.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Pickard, J. 1984. Exotic plants on Lord Howe Island: Distribution in space and time, 1853-1981. J. of Biogeography 11:181-208.

Queensland Herbarium. 2002. Invasive Naturalised Plants in Southeast Queensland, alphabetical by genus. Modified from: Batianoff, George N. and Butler, Don W. (2002). Assessment of Invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Appendix. Plant Protection Quarterly 17, 27-34. 11 pp.

Sachet, M.-H. 1983. Botanique de l'ile de Tupai, Iles de la Societe. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 276. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 26 pp. + photos.

Smith, Albert C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 1. 494 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd. 2008. Botanical survey of Midway Atoll. Prepared for: United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 27 pp. plus appendices.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Sykes, Bill. 0. Bill Sykes, pers. com.

Sykes, W. R. 1977. Kermadec Islands flora: an annotated checklist. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 219, Wellington. 216 pp.

Tassin, Jacques. 2005. Jacques Tassin (IAC-CIRAD), personal communication.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Wester, Lyndon. 1985. Checklist of the vascular plants of the northern Line Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Reseach Bulletin 287:1-38.

Whistler, W. A. 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of western Polynesia. Technical Paper No. 194, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 69 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1992. Flora of Tonga [unpublished checklist]. 107 pp.

Whistler, W. Arthur. 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Isle Botanica. 49 pp.

Wiggins, I. L./Porter, D. M. 1971. Flora of the Galapágos Islands. Stanford University Press. 998 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 8 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 22 AUG 2011.