Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Stachytarpheta jamaicensis
(L.) Vahl, Verbenaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: jia ma bian

English: bastard vervain, blue porterweed, blue snakeweed, Brazilian tea, Jamaica vervain, Jamaican snakeweed, joee, light blue snakeweed, nettleleaf vervain

French: herbe á chenille, herbe bleue, queue de rat

Hawaiian: oī, ōwī

I-Kiribati: te uti

Japanese: nagaboso

Kwara‘ae: kinilio

Nauruan: edidubai, edidubaiy

Palauan: louch beluu

Samoan: mautofu tala, mautofu vao

Spanish: golondrina, verbena azul, verbena manza

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Low, usually spreading annual or perennial herbs, 6-12 dm tall, sometimes somewhat woody toward base, often purplish throughout; stems dichotomously branched, sparsely pubescent or glabrate, nodes usually sparsely pilose.  Leaves often bluish or grayish when fresh, alternate or opposite, somewhat fleshy, oblong to elliptic or ovate, 2-9 (-12) cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide, upper surface glabrate, lower surface glabrous to strigose or strigillose on the veins and sometimes margins or sparsely hispidulous, margins serrate, the teeth angled forward, petioles 0.3-3.5 cm long.  Spikes stout and stiff, 15-50 cm long, glabrous, rachis stout and firm, up to 7 mm in diameter, the furrows conspicuously narrower than the rachis, bracts lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 5-8 mm long; calyx completely embedded in rachis furrows, somewhat compressed, ca. 5 mm long, 2 of the teeth very reduced; corolla usually pale blue, 8-11 mm long." (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1322).

"Stachytarpheta jamaicensis hybridizes with S. cayennensis.  In general, the hybrids resemble S. jamaicensis more closely than S. cayennensis, but the corollas are darker in color than typical in S. jamaicensis, the habit is more erect, and the leaves are usually more ovate, darker green, and with more divergent teeth similar to S. cayennensis (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1322).

Similar species:  S. cayennensis.

Keys to the species

Wunderlin, 1998; p. 524:

S. jamaicensis: Floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, scariously margined mostly above the middle; leaf teeth obtuse.
S. cayennensis: Floral bracts lanceolate-subulate, scariously margined below the middle; leaf teeth acute.

Smith, 2002; pp. 42-43:

S. cayennensis:  Lower leaf surfaces, rachis and calyx hairless; rachis slender 1-3 mm diameter; leaves membranous; flowers blue to almost white.
S. jamaicensis:  Lower leaf surface, rachis and calyx hairless; rachis stout, 3-5 mm diameter; leaves fleshy; flowers mauve, blue, violet or purple.

In the Pacific region, the flowers of S. jamaicensis generally seem to be of a more violet color rather than blue (photo).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in open, dry, disturbed areas, 0-490 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1322). In New Guinea, "a weed of roadsides, waste land and pastures. Mostly at low altitudes but found to 700 m" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 159).  "In north and east Australia it is found in gardens, parks, vacant lots, and disturbed sites such as roadsides and building sites.  It is a weed of moist pastures as well as unirrigated improved pastures.  It also appears in unimproved pastures made up of mainly native plants.  Its seeds are moved about with hay and soil and may contaminate pasture seed supplies"  (Holm et al., 1997; p. 814).

Propagation:  "Usually spread intentionally as ornamental plants.  Seeds are also dispersed on vehicles, by the movement of soil in refuse from gardens and by rainwater.  In Queensland [Australia] they have been spread in fodder, hay and in contaminated pasture seed."  (Smith, 2002; pp. 42-43).

Native range:  Tropical and subtropical areas of the New World, widely naturalized (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1322).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Wisner 116
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 54)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 43371)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Farallon de Medinilla (Marpi, Medinilla) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 38)
Vouchers cited: Anderson 612 (US, BISH, Fo), Fosberg 31368 (US), Moore 409 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 6)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 59)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Voucher: Flynn 7070 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 378)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Ulalu (Romonum) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 7)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 22264)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 6)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7878 (PTBG)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21116)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 104)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2424 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 140)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 3927 (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 58432 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2424 (BISH), N.L.H. Krauss 1897a (BISH), S. Perlman 21461 (PTBG)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 33307)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1322-1323)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1322-1323)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1322-1323)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1322-1323)
Voucher cited: Munro 288 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1322-1323)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110141 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1322-1323)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
invasive
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 288)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (pp. 52-53)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54895 (US, HAW, K)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Voucher: Imada 2003-143 (BISH 697755)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 33067)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39901)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 12)
"Occasional; in grassy and ruderal areas".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (pp. 72-73)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31182, Fosberg 34121, Fosberg 48040, Herbst 8892, Herbst 8962, Herbst 8972, Herbst 9633, Whistler 11252
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 19)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31182 (US), Fosberg 34121 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 44968)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 13)
"Common; along road and in ruderal areas".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 27028 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 132)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A23)
Occasional; in ruderal areas and fields, Mili.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0514200912
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 206-207)
Reported present in 1935 but not reported since.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Sykes 1374
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 6)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 10)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 104)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Voucher: Lorence 9724 (PTBG, BISH, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 17)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 102)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2007) (voucher ID: BNM 4400)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3002)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 89)
Incorrectly identified as Stachytarpheta cayennensis.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Voucher: Lorence 9804 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 97)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 99)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 99)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 107)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Aulupse‘el (Ulebsechel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 63)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 159)
Mostly at low altitudes but found to 700 m.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 66)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 69, 79)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 381)
A common weed in open waste places at low and medium altitudes in the settled areas.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Whistler 2077
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 110)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 166)
Dominant invader.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Voucher: Flynn 6871 (PTBG, US)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 235)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Whistler 5019
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 59)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1322-1323)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-14)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38236)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta urticifolia (Salisb.) Sims
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 45268)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 238)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: McFarlane 22 (US)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 42-43)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 42-43)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 812)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 232)
On shade grasslands in valleys.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 69, 79)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 188)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 69, 79)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 69, 79)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 69, 79)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 81)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 812)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) probably introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 69, 79)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 351-352)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 128)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 38)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 157)
Vouchers cited: Bourne 18 (K), Hume in 1883 (K), Stoddart 775 (K, US), Stoddart 880 (K, US), Rhyne 748 (US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 30)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38062)
Taxon name on voucher: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
As S. indica
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé"
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 33)
"Occasional in open places". Voucher cited: Fosberg 36821 (US)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (pp. 812, 814)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 139)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 7290 (US), Stoddart 7295 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Alphonse Island   Robertson, I. A. D./Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 184)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2856 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 156)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3081 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52074 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7160 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Desnoeufs Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 211)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2687
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Marie-Louise Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 195)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Platte Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 164)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3049 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 174)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2369 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
St. Joseph Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 47)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7142 (US)

Comments:  A declared noxious weed in the Northern Territory and prohibited in Western Australia (Smith, 2002; pp. 42-43).

S. jamaicensis is quite prevalent at the airport and on roadsides on Kosrae; S. cayennensis is absent (Space et al., 2000).

Control: 

Chemical: Probably similar to control for S. cayennensis: "Probably controlled by translocated herbicides, including 2,4-D and glyphosate at standard rates.  It should be susceptible to wick-wiping with glyphosate"  (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 30).

Additional information:
Fact sheet from the Government of Queensland, Australia. (PDF format).

Additional online information about Stachytarpheta jamaicensis is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Stachytarpheta jamaicensis as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Stachytarpheta jamaicensis may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

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Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 2007. Voucher specimen #BNM4400(Balick et al. 4400).

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Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1995. Voucher specimen #PTBG38062(Art Whistler 9778).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1995. Voucher specimen #PTBG38236(Art Whistler 9907).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1995. Voucher specimen #PTBG38236(Art Whistler 9907).

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This page was created on 8 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 14 JAN 2013.