Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Spathodea campanulata
P.Beauv., Bignoniaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 14 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Carolinian: apär

English: African tulip tree, fireball, flame of the forest, fountain tree

Fijian: taga mimi

French: baton du sorcier, pissat de singe, pisse l'eau, pisse-pisse, tulipier du Gabon

Maori (Cook Islands): kō‘ī‘ī, kō‘ī‘ī, mata kō‘ī‘ī, mimi, patiti vai, pātītī vai, pititi vai

Palauan: orsachel kui

Pohnpeian: dulip en Aprika, tuhke dulip

Samoan: fa‘apasī, fa‘apasī, tulipe, tulipe

Spanish: tulipán Africano

Tongan: tiulipe

Tongarevan (spoken): tiale akapisipisi

Tongarevan (written): tiare akapisipisi

Yapese: ramingobchey

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Large tree with a stout, tapering often somewhat buttressed trunk, branches thickish, marked with small white lenticels, subglabrous to thinly puberulent; leaves usually opposite (rarely 3 at a node), very widely diverging, up to 50 cm long, (7-) 11-15 (-17) leaflets broadly elliptic or ovate, entire, to 15 x 7.5 cm, with 7-8 principal veins on each side, puberulent and prominent beneath, apex very slightly acuminate, base somewhat asymmetrically obtuse, lower leaflets tending to be reflexed, petiolule short, 2-3 mm, rachis nearly straight, brownish-puberulent, petiole up to 6 cm long, thickened at base; raceme 8-10 cm long on a peduncle of about the same length, with a pair of reduced leaves about halfway up, rachis and pedicels thick, brownish puberulent, bracts subtending pedicels lanceolate, curved, about 1 cm long, caducous, pair of bractlets near summit of pedicel similar, opposite; calyx strongly curved upward, asymmetric, about 5 cm long, tapering, somewhat ribbed, splitting at anthesis to within a few mm of base along dorsal curve, apex horn-like, blunt, exterior brownish sericeous puberulent; corolla bright vermilion or scarlet, 10-12 cm long, mouth of limb about 7 cm across, lobes about 3 cm long, obtuse, margins strongly crispate, orange-yellow; filaments about 5 cm long, dull orange anthers arcuate, linear, very dark brown, 15 mm long; style yellow, 8 cm long, stigma reddish; capsule lanceolate, slightly compressed, 17-25 x 3.5-7 cm" (Fosberg et al., 1993; p. 11).

Habitat/ecology:  This showy, shade-tolerant, evergreen tree reaches heights of 25 m. It invades both abandoned agricultural land and closed forest. "Forests and forest edges.  A tree that spreads rapidly in mesic to wet areas and forms dense thickets.  Native plants are eliminated by the shading effect of the large leaves, resulting in reduced species richness under the canopies of this tree"  (Weber, 2003; p. 418).

Favors moist and wet areas from sea level to 1,000 m in Hawai‘i (C. W. Smith, 1985; p. 203), to 1200 m in French Polynesia. Moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 89). "Highly invasive in Tahiti up to 1300 m in cloud forests" (Jean-Yves Meyer, pers. com.).

Propagation:  Wind-dispersed seeds. Also propagates from root suckers and cuttings.

"The African tulip tree didn't produce fruits (and their wind-dispersed seeds) in La Réunion for a long time...before the endemic Zosterops started to visit and pollinate the flowers a few years ago. The African tulip tree is now starting to naturalize in La Réunion" (Jean-Yves Meyer, pers. com.).

Native range:  Pan-tropical cultivated tree, native to West Africa, its scarlet flower clusters very showy. Commonly planted throughout the Pacific, naturalized locally.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 6)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 43116)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 102)
"Potential invader".
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 62)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 81964)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 89)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 664386)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 665018)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 252)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 6)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 440883)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 440884)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 595784)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 613424)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 252)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Potential invader"
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 102)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2872 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 74)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 4178 (NY, PTBG), S.F. Glassman 2872 (BISH)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 43543)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 133841)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 145)
Vouchers cited: DA 12237, DA 16976
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 33662)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 33663)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: H.M. Smith 22
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
University of California (2006)
"Invasive species, not spreading particularly quickly, but of some concern".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 22340)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 696734)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 22)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 50)
Vouchers cited: BRY 24830, BRY 25461
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (year unknown)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 530)
Voucher cited: Stone 4179 (GUAM)
Sparingly naturalized.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 252)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 133842)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 133843)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 133845)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 440897)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 440898)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1970) (voucher ID: BISH 443835)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 388)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 388)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H120642 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 388)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 388)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 388)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 31)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 31)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 602650)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 252)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 99)
Not seen on this survey and may no longer be present.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 105)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58682 (US), Thaman & Manner 123 (SUVA)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438332)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 22)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 16067, MacKee 20657, Latreille in MacKee 45385
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 449716)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: CHR 168869
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 6)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 108)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9802 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 12)
Spreading by root suckers and possibly by seed.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7, 86)
Subject of an eradication program.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 9)
Only this tree is known to be remaining in the country.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 252)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7, 82)
Subject of an eradication program.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island extirpated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 9)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 438015)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1974) (voucher ID: BNM 10062)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata Beauv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 204)
Taxon name on voucher: Spathodea campanulata Beauv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 7, 82)
Subject of an eradication program.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island extirpated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 9)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 508)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 447)
Cultivated in Manila for ornamental purposes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 6)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 110)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 242)
"Occasional in villages".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 9)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-13)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 080610-12
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 107)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Jourdan, Hervé/Malau, Atoloto (2008) (p. 9)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 10, 31)
Il est localement naturalisé mais présente une régénération importante en forêt secondaire, sur les bords de pistes et de route, en bordure de zone cultivée (tarodière, cultures dignames). Il semble être en phase d'expansion, ses graines ailées pouvant être disséminées par le vent sur de longues distances.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Jourdan, Hervé/Malau, Atoloto (2008) (p. 9)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 107)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (pp. 196-197)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (pp. 196-197)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 257)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. (2003) (p. 89)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 80)
Naturalised
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (pp. 67, 128)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Anjouan (Nzwani) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Grande Comore (Njazidja) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Mohéli (Mwali) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/naturalisé"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée, potentiellement envahissant.
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  A problem species in Hawai‘i, Fiji, French Polynesia and Samoa.

Very abundant on Aneityum, Vanuatu.

Present but not a large problem (at least yet) in most parts of Micronesia, although it is widespread in Pohnpei (Space & Falanruw, 1999). On Guam, numerous individuals scattered throughout the native forest on the northern part of the island were noted (Space & Falanruw, 1999). Subject of an eradication program in Palau (Space et al., 2003).

Trunks and limbs are weak and don't stand up to typhoons very well. Also has a bad habit of dropping large limbs when it becomes older.

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and young plants.  "Difficult to control mechanically although small trees can be pulled or dug out"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 11).

Chemical:  Cut large plants and treat the stumps with herbicide.  "Trees sensitive to cut-surface applications of dicamba and glyphosate; saplings sensitive to basal bark applications of 2,4-D and triclopyr"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

"For large trees, cut notches (0.8-1 in. deep into the cambium) around the stem and spray undiluted herbicide (Roundup or Garlon 4) into the notches"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 11).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Fact sheet from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" (PDF format).
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Fact sheet from the Government of Queensland, Australia (PDF format).
Information from the USDA Tropical Tree Seed Manual (PDF format).

Additional online information about Spathodea campanulata is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Spathodea campanulata as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Spathodea campanulata may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1967. Voucher specimen #BNM204(Emmons, B. 39).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1974. Voucher specimen #BNM10062(Otobed, D.O. P-10062).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 133845 (Nelson, P. 554).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 133841 (Glassman, S.F. 2872).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 449716 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 1617).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 33663 (Pillay, S. 12237).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1962. Voucher specimen #BISH 133842 (Stone, B.C.M. 4179).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1962. Voucher specimen #BISH 133843 (Stone, B.C.M. 4179).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 440883 (Evans, M. 753).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 440884 (Evans, M. 753).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 440897 (Evans, M. 1764).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 440898 (Evans, M. 1764).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 22340 (Smith, H.M. 22).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 438015 (Emmons, B. 39).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 696734 (Smith, H.M. 22).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 33662 (Doroiveibau, D. 16976).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 81964 (Stoddart, D.R. 2268).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 665018 (Philipson, W.R. 10306).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1970. Voucher specimen #BISH 443835 (Winebrenner, W.H. 68).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 438332 (Fosberg, F.R. 58682).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 613424 (Fosberg, F.R. 60351).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 595784 (Grimm, G. 031).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 602650 (Wester, L. 2201).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 664386 (Sykes, W.R. CHR 474870).

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

Délégation à l'Environnement/Délégation à Recherche. 2001. Les plantes envahissantes en Polynésie Française. French Polynesia. 2 p. folder.

Englberger, Konrad. 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: A guide for identification and public awareness. Conservation Society of Pohnpei. 29 pp.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L. 1993. Flora of Micronesia. Part 5. Bignoniaceae--Rubiaceae. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 81: 1-135.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Little, Elbert L./Skolmen, Roger G. 1989. Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced). USDA Agriculture Handbook 679. Washington, D.C. 377 pp. + plates.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

McMullen, C. K. 1999. Flowering plants of the Galápagos. Comstock Pub. Assoc., Ithaca, N.Y. 370 p.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 3 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 628 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 0. Jean-Yves Meyer, pers. com.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves/Jourdan, Hervé/Malau, Atoloto. 2008. Recent incursions of invasive animal and plant species in the small and remote archipelago of Wallis and Futuna (South Pacific): "La maison brûle mais nous regardons ailleurs". In: Aliens 27: 8-9.

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

Oppenheimer, Hank. 2007. New plant records from Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i for 2006. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2006. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 96:17-34.

Orapa, Warea. 2005. Warea Orapa, Weed Mangement Officer, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, pers. com. (Trip Report, Wallis and Futuna Islands, 8 to 22 May, 2004).

Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. 2003. Invasive alien species in south-southeast Asia: national reports and directory of resources. Global Invasive Species Programme. 111 pp.

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. 1991. Trees and shrubs of the northern Mariana Islands. Saipan: Coastal Resources Management Office of the Governor, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 96950. 119 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 5. 626 pp.

Smith, Clifford W. 1985. Impact of Alien Plants on Hawai‘i's Native Biota. In: Stone, Charles P. and Scott, J. Michael, eds. Hawai‘i's terrestrial ecosystems: preservation and Management. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii, Manoa.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 51 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 34 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 41 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

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Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

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Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

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U. S. Government. 2013. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (on-line resource).

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

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Vos, P. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 2. The Comoros Archipelago (Union of the Comoros and Mayotte). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-2E. 34 pp.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

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Whistler, W. A. 1991. The ethnobotany of Tonga: The plants, their Tongan names, and their uses. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Botany 2. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 155 pp. ISBN 0-930897-57-9.

Whistler, W. A. 2000. Plants in Samoan culture: The ethnobotany of Samoa. Isle Botanica. 234 pp. ISB: 0-9645426-6-8.

Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Prepared for Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and the U. S. Army Environmental Center. 111 pp.

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Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 126 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 12 APR 2013.