Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Sorghum halepense
(L.) Pers., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 25 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Andropogon halepensis (L.) Brot.

Common name(s): [more details]

Bikol: aroró

Chinese: shi mao

English: Aleppo grass, Aleppo milletgrass, alwyn grass, Johnson grass

French: herbe d'Alep, herbe de Cuba, sorgho, sorgho d'Alep

Ifugao: baku

Palauan: mbangarnuis

Spanish: cañota, grama china, grama china, hierba Johnson, milloca, pasto Johnson, sorgo de Aleppo, sorgo maleza, zacate johnson

Tagalog: batad-batádan, ngigai

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennial [grass] with strong rhizomes; culms erect, to 1.5 m tall; nodes with short pubescence; sheaths glabrous; ligule ciliate-membranous, 2 mm long; blades elongate, usually 1-1.5 cm wide, the midrib prominent; panicles 15-25 cm long, branches ascending; spikelets 5 mm long, acute; first glume hard; fertile lemma awned or awnless, awn if present 1 cm long or less" (Stone, 1970; p. 239).

"Habit: Perennial. Rhizomes elongated; scaly. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 50-300 cm long. Culm-nodes pubescent. Leaves cauline. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades 20-90 cm long; 5-40 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins scaberulous. Inflorescence: Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme. Panicle open; lanceolate, or pyramidal; 10-55 cm long; 3-25 cm wide. Primary panicle branches whorled at most nodes; moderately divided. Racemes 1.2-2.5 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1-5 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; ciliate on margins. Rhachis internodes filiform. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; ciliate. Sterile spikelets: Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 4.5-6.5 mm long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; 5 -veined; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 4.5-5(-5.5) mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pubescent; base obtuse. Glumles: Glumes dissimilar; with lower wider than upper; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; 1 times length of spikelet; coriaceous; pallid, or dark brown, or red, or purple, or black; 2-keeled; keeled above. Lower glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Lower glume apex dentate; 3-fid. Upper glume ovate; coriaceous; without keels. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Florets: Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic; 0.8 times length of spikelet; hyaline; 2-veined; ciliolate on margins. Fertile lemma elliptic; 2-2.5 mm long; hyaline; 1-veined. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex entire, or dentate; 2 -fid; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 10-16 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn pubescent; hairy on the spiral. Palea present. Flower: Lodicules 2; ciliate" (GrassBase).

Habitat/ecology:  "It seems best adapted to the warm, humid, summer-rainfall areas in the subtropics and not so well adapted to areas which are strictly tropical.  The species can grow on a variety of sites; on arable land, waste places, roadsides, and field  borders.  It occurs extensively along irrigated canals and at the edges of irrigated fields,  Its general distribution in these areas is the result of water movement of the seeds, which readilly fall from the head when mature"  (Holm et al., 1977; pp. 54, 57).  "Plants develop long rhizomes bearing buds which germinate readily. Rhizome growth of Johnson grass is more abundant than the shoot growth (Oyer et al., 1959; La O et al., 1993b) and in some cases rhizome fresh weight reaches 90% of the whole developed Johnson grass plant (Horowitz, 1972b). Apical dominance is broken with rhizome fragmentation, which consistently stimulates lateral bud germination (Hull, 1968) and each bud produces one shoot" (Oyer et al. 1959).

"Common to abundant on roadsides and in waste places, and occasionally in crops, particularly those near roadsides" (Whistler, 1983; p. 95). In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in mesic to wet, disturbed sites, 10-520 M"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1594).  In Fiji, "a widespread and serious weed of cultivation and was declared a noxious weed in 1947"  (Smith, 1979; pp. 374-375). In New Caledonia, "largement répandu et très commun comme mauvaise herbe" (MacKee, 1994; p. 62).

Propagation:  Reproduction is by seed and rhizome production. It grows and develops intensively in warm habitats, with air temperatures above 15C (Horowitz, 1972a).

Rhizomes are distributed mainly in the top 20 cm of the soil profile. Most are located in the first 15 cm, but up to 10% are found below 30 cm (Horowitz, 1972b; McWhorter, 1972). Rhizome initiation usually takes place a month or 45 days after Johnson grass emergence and coincides with tillering or the 6-7 leaf stage of shoot growth (Oyer et al., 1959; Anderson et al., 1960; Horowitz 1972a; La O et al., 1993a). This process is commonly faster with plants developing from long rhizomes.

Seed production is variable and dependent on several environmental factors. High seed production is found in plants with high tiller production. Production of seed may vary from 540 to 1440 kg/ha (McWhorter, 1973, 1989), but not all of them are able to germinate immediately after ripening. The optimal air temperature for seed germination is within the range 25-30oC (Horowitz, 1972a). The seeds can remain viable in soil for periods of up to 6 years (Leguizamón, 1986). In Mississippi (U.S.A.), germination of Johnson grass decreased from 62% after being buried for 2.5 year to 37% after 5.5 year (Egley, 1977; Egley and Chandler 1983).

Vigorous growth requires high light intensity (McWhorter and Jordan, 1976) and photoperiods of 12.5 hours are optimal for Johnson grass growth and development (Sakri and Hull, 1968).

Native range:  Southeastern Europe, now widespread. It is present in many countries of the world. It prevails in hot climatic conditions and tends to be more productive during the rainy season in tropical areas (La O et al., 1993b). Supposedly introduced to Guam from Samoa.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
American Samoa Islands
American Samoa Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
There is some question as to whether or not the species in Western Polynesia is S. halepense. Whistler (1988) identifies it as S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf.
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 29)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 80)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 499, 545, 558)
Voucher cited: Danton I(5/91)1452. "En RC, lo encontramos fuera de los jardines en una calle del pueblo de San Juan Bautista.  Es una especie agresiva, probablemente de introducción reciente, que serí mejor eliminar rápidamente".
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 60)
Also f. muticum
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 96-98)
f. halepense; voucher cited: Fosberg 31860 (US, BISH, POM); f. muticum (Hack.) Hubb.; voucher cited: Evans 2002 (US, BISH, A, POM, BRI, L)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 588718)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 588728)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 60)
Also f. muticum and var. propinquum.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 96-98)
f. halepense; voucher cited: Hosaka 2901 (US, BISH); f. muticum (Hack.) Hubb.; vouchers cited: Fosberg 31266 (US, BISH), Fosberg 25216 (US, BISH, A, BRI, K); var. propinquum (Kunth) Ohwi; vouchers cited: Kanehira 911 (FU), Kanehira 965 (FU), Kanehira 1002 (FU), Kanehira & Hatusima 4266 (FU)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1930) (voucher ID: BISH 126886)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 572170)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 588726)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 588730)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 588733)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 60)
f. muticum
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 96-98)
f. muticum (Hack.) Hubb.; voucher cited: Hosaka 2833 (US, BISH, MO)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 588731)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 126846)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 60)
f. muticum
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 588720)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 60)
f. muticum
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 133)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2909 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 61)
Vouchers cited: B.Ekiek 121 (NY, PTBG), T.W. Flynn 6227 (K, PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 96-98)
f. muticum (Hack.) Hubb.; vouchers cited: Glassman 2909 (US), Fosberg 58563 (US, BISH, POM, NY)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 126884)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438254)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 511181)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 374-375)
Vouchers cited: DA 8732, DA 10452
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 31630)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 374-375)
Vouchers cited: DA 2519, DA 10407, DA 10419, DA 8188, DA 10811; f. muticum: DA 2519, DA 8539, DA 10751, DA 10438
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 31659)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Agassiz 92 (GH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 106)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 345)
Voucher cited: BRY 26356
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 345)
Voucher cited: BRY 25989
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 239)
Forma mutica C.E. Hubbard
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 60)
f. muticum
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 96-98)
f. muticum (Hack.) Hubb.; vouchers cited: McGregor 491 (US), Pedrus 43 (US), Fosberg 39240 (US, BISH, POM, MO, CANB), Stone 4054 (US, GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1911) (voucher ID: BISH 126883)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 126887)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 126889)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 588719)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 588729)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1594-1595)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1594-1595)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1594-1595)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1594-1595)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1594-1595)
Voucher cited: Forbes 1331 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Also f. muticum (Hack.) C.E.Hubb.
Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 65)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Largement répandue et très commune comme mauvaise herbe.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 62)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Belep introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Largement répandue et très commune comme mauvaise herbe.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Belep introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 62)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Largement répandue et très commune comme mauvaise herbe.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 62)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Largement répandue et très commune comme mauvaise herbe.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: Germain s.n.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Voucher: Lorence 9889 (PTBG, BNM, BISH, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 151023)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1996) (voucher ID: BNM 26386)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 182)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 60)
f. muticum and var. propinquum
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 96-98)
f. muticum (Hack.) Hubb.; vouchers cited: Blackburn E 16 (US), STone 4585 (GUAM), Fosberg 32321 (US, BISH); var. propinquum (Kunth) Ohwi; voucher cited: Kanehira 210 (FU)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 588732)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 1074)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3129)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense f. muticum (Hack.) Hubb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 65)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 61)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 45)
Often common.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Paulay, Gustav/Spencer, T./Oliver, Royce (1989) (pp. 12-13)
Vouchers cited: Paulay, Spencer & Schuster 667 (US), Paulay, Spencer & Schuster 673 (US)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
"Certainement la graminée la plus commune dans toute l'île, du bord de mer jusque dans la lande à Dicranopteris qu'elle tend à envahir". Voucher cited: J. Florence 10781 (PAP)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 642955)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 642956)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1904) (voucher ID: BISH 126872)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 110)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 166)
Moderate invader.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 66)
There is some question as to whether or not the species in Western Polynesia is S. halepense. Whistler (1988) identifies it as S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf. Voucher cited: Yuncker 15722.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 75)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 66)
There is some question as to whether or not the species in Western Polynesia is S. halepense. Whistler (1988) identifies it as S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf. Voucher cited: Yuncker 15476
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 66)
There is some question as to whether or not the species in Western Polynesia is S. halepense. Whistler (1988) identifies it as S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf. Vouchers cited: Hürlmann 33, Hürlmann 50, Yuncker 15163
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 107)
"Potential invader". Roadsides.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 28)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
There is some question as to whether or not the species in Western Polynesia is S. halepense. Whistler (1988) identifies it as S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 59-60)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 59-60)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 136)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 348)
In valleys, by riverside on farmland.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 59-60)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 346)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 346)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 346)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 59)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 60-61)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 610)
"Crops (especially maize), cultivated ground, waste ground, footpaths, railway lines. Aggressive and extremely difficult to eradicate because of the extensive, very strong rhizomes".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 61)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 60-61)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. plate)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 61)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 18)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 25)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 43835)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum halepense

Comments:  A problem species in Hawai‘i. A Class A (eradicate) noxious weed in New Zealand. Old plants contain hydrocyanic acid and are dangerous to livestock.

Fosberg et al (1987; p. 60) list three varieties: S. halepensis var.halepense f. halepense, present on Saipan and Rota; S. halepense var. halepense f. muticum (Hack.) Hubb., present on Saipan, Tinian, Rota, Guam, Palau, Chuuk, and Pohnpei; and S. Halepense var. propinquum (Kunth) Ohwi, present on Saipan and Palau.

Control:  Additional control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

Prevention and dispersal: Prevention of seed dispersal and rhizome production is an important measure to avoid high Johnson grass infestation in crop areas. Seeds are normally dispersed through wind, water, animals and contaminated crop seeds, therefore slashing the plants at the beginning of the flowering stage in field margins, ditchbanks, canals and crop land and/or avoiding animal grazing in infested areas help to prevent new Johnson grass infestations.

Physical: Mechanical control of Johnson grass aims to prevent new rhizome production and must be implemented within the first month after shoot emergence. McWhorter (1989) considers that cultivation is most effective when the grass is about 36 cm tall. This helps prevent plants from forming rhizomes or seeds. In arable land Johnson grass infestations may be reduced by dragging the rhizomes onto the soil surface with a sweep or spike-tooth tiller during land preparation as this facilitates desiccation by sunlight (Crovetto and Rojo, 1957; Grupce, 1975; Labrada et al., 1982). Desiccation of rhizomes can be accelerated by cutting them into fragments less than 5 cm length. Rhizomes dried to 20% of their original weight completely lose their regenerative ability (Anderson et al., 1960). In fruit tree orchards regular mowing when the shoots are 20-25 cm tall tends to deplete rhizome food reserves and limits further rhizome production.

Pasturing over a period of several seasons is advocated as an effective method to reduce Johnson grass stands (Hauser and Arle, 1958; McWhorter, 1981). Miller et al. (1962)also indicated that geese provide excellent control of Johnson grass and other grasses in cotton, but required a high level of management.

Chemical: Johnson grass is not easily controlled with herbicides but several systemic foliarly-applied compounds can be effective. Glyphosate is useful in pre-planting treatment, applied to well-developed foliage 2-3 weeks before planting or seeding, and may also be used in fruit tree orchards. Post-emergence application of fluazifop-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, quizalofop-ethyl and sethoxydim are selective in broadleaf crops and provide control of seedlings and suppression of established plants. A single application of these herbicides is not usually enough to reduce heavy Johnson grass infestations below the economical threshold in the affected crops.

In sugar cane, post-emergence treatment with compounds such as asulam, dalapon and MSMA have been selective in the crop (Millhollon and Fanguy, 1989). These compounds are usually applied when the shoots are 20-25 cm high. Dalapon is less selective to sugar cane than asulam or MSMA, and application should be directly onto the weeds, avoiding any contact with cane foliage.

Trifluralin as a soil-incorporated pre-planting treatment is effective for the reduction of Johnson grass stand from rhizomes. This treatment is most effective against short rhizomes (less than 10 cm) (McWhorter, 1974). Good to excellent effectiveness is provided by a second treatment in the second year of a Johnson grass control program (McWhorter, 1989). This treatment is selective in crops such as sugar cane, beans, soybeans, groudnut and cotton (McWhorter, 1974; McWhorter, 1977; Millhollon, 1978; Kleifeldet al., 1986; Labrada et al., 1987). However, this treatment is not selective in all sugarcane varieties (La O et al., 1985). Another useful dinitroaniline herbicide for the control of Johnson grass seedlings is pendimethalin.

Pre-seeding soil-incorporated EPTC+dichlormid is also effective for Johnson grass control in maize crops (de Falcón et al., 1985).

It is important to stress that chemical control measures alone do not usually control Johnson grass. Furthermore, chemical treatments are not always economically feasible for smallholder farmers. Therefore, the best control option for this perennial weed is the integration of land preparation, crop rotation and rational chemical treatments.

Additional information:
Information on the Environment Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, web site.
Photos and additional information at University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Information from the Bugwood Wiki.
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Species profile from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Invasive Species Information Center.

Additional online information about Sorghum halepense is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Sorghum halepense as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Sorghum halepense may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

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Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1966. Voucher specimen #BNM1074(Blackburn, B.S. 16).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1981. Voucher specimen #BNM3129(Timberlake, J. 3129).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1996. Voucher specimen #BNM26386(Rinehart, A.F. LR26386).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1904. Voucher specimen #BISH 126872 (Vaupel, F. 111).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1911. Voucher specimen #BISH 126883 (McGregor, R.C. 491).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1918. Voucher specimen #BISH 126887 (Nelson, P. 285).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1918. Voucher specimen #BISH 126889 (Nelson, P. 285).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1928. Voucher specimen #BISH 126846 (Graham, J. 3).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1930. Voucher specimen #BISH 126886 (Kanehira, R. 965).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 588726 (Fosberg, F.R. 25216).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 588731 (Hosaka, E.Y. 2833).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 588733 (Hosaka, E.Y. 2901).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 126884 (Glassman, S.F. 2909).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 588728 (Fosberg, F.R. 31860).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 588730 (Fosberg, F.R. 31266).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 588732 (Fosberg, F.R. 32321).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 31630 (Parham, J.W. 8732).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1957. Voucher specimen #BISH 31659 (Koroiveibau, D. 10751).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1957. Voucher specimen #BISH 588729 (Fosberg, F.R. 39240).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 588718 (Evans, M. 2002).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 588719 (Evans, M. 1769).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 438254 (Fosberg, F.R. 58563).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 588720 (Fosberg, F.R. 60301).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 572170 (Raulerson, L. 12919).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 511181 (Krauss, N. 1898c).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 642955 (Florence 10781).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 642956 (Florence 10781).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1996. Voucher specimen #BISH 151023 (Rinehart, A.F. LR26386).

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 22 AUG 2011.