Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Solanum viarum
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Solanaceae


Reject, score: 24 (Go to the risk assessment (Florida (U.S.))) (PDF format).
High risk (Go to the risk assessment (United States)) (PDF format).

Chinese: mao guo qie

English: tropical soda apple

"Herbs or subshrubs, erect, 0.5-1 (-2) m tall, armed, minutely tomentose with many-celled, simple, mostly glandular hairs.  Stems and branches terete, densely and evenly pubescent with many-celled, simple hairs to 1 mm, armed with recurved prickles 2-5 X 1-5 (-8) mm and sometimes with needlelike prickles 1-4 mm.  Leaves unequal paired; petiole stout 3-7 cm, armed with erect, flat straight prickles 0.3-1.8 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate, 6-13 X 6-12 cm, with prickles and coarse, many-celled, glandular simple hairs on both surfaces, these mixed with sparse, sessile, stellate hairs abaxially, base truncate to short hastate, margin 3-5-lobed or -parted; lobes blunt at apex.  Inflorescences extra-axillary, subfasciculate, 1-5-flowered racemes; peduncle obsolete or short.  Flowers andromonoecious, only basal ones fertile.  Pedicel 4-6 mm.  Calyx campanulate, ca 10 X 7 mm, lobes oblong-lanceolate, 0.6-1.2 mm, hairy and sometimes prickly abaxially.  Corolla white or green; lobes lanceolate, ca 2.5 X 10 mm, pubescent as on calyx.  Filaments 1-1.5 mm; anthers lanceolate, acuminate, 6-7 mm.  Ovary puberulent.  Style ca 8 mm, glabrous.  Berry pale yellow, globose, 2-3 cm in diameter. Seeds brown, lenticular, 2-2.8 mm in diameter" (Zhi-yun, An-ming and D'Arcy, 1994; p. 323). "Grassland, forests and hammocks, riparian habitats.  Where native, this fast growing plant grows commonly in grassland, thickets, and disturbed places.  Where invasive, it forms dense stands that outcompete native species. The plant can regenerate new shoots from its extensive root system and can quickly build up large populations"  (Weber, 2003; p. 410). Seeds. "Seed production is prolific.  These are dispersed by birds and mammals.  The plant can regenerate new shoots from its extensive root system and can quickly build up large populations"  (Weber, 2003; p. 410).  The fruits are consumed by cattle and other animals. In the US, spreads into natural areas by wildlife such as deer, raccoons and feral pigs. May be a contaminant in grass seed. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay (GRIN).
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Wastelands, grasslands, thickets, open forests, along ditches, roadsides; 1400-2200 m. E. Xizang (Zaya Xian), Yunnan.
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
A declared noxious weed in the US.

Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Hunsberger, 2001).

Serves as an alternate hose for pathogens such as the gemini virus, cucumber mosaic virus, potato leaf roll virus, potato virus Y, tobacco etch virus, tobacco mosaic virus, tomato mottle virus, and the fungal pathogen Alternaria solani.

Physical:  "Eradication is difficult due to the extensive root system.  Seedlings and small plants may be pulled or dug out, roots must be removed to prevent regrowth".

Chemical:  "Larger patches may be controlled by herbicides"  (Weber, 2003; p. 410).

Biological:  Biological control information from the publication "Biological control of invasive plants in the eastern United States".


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