Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Sida rhombifolia
L., Malvaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Sida microphylla Cav.

Common name(s): [more details]

Austral: brum, purum, purumu, purumu, purumu

Chamorro: escobilla, escobilla adumelon, escobilla apaka, escobilla dalili

Chinese: bai bei huang hua ren

Chuukese: sieunen, sioinen, siyóyinen

English: arrow-leaf sida, big Jack, bloom weed, broom weed, coffee bush, common sida, Cuba jute, Cuban jute, jelly leaf, Paddy's lucerne, Queensland hemp, rhomboid ilima, sida, teaweed

Fijian: mbariara, ndeni puaka, ndeni vuaka, ndenime, ndeniosa, nggavi ni lathoi, nggavi ni lawa, qawenilawe, thavuthindra

French: faux thé, herbe à balais

Kwara‘ae: mamafu‘ai

Mangarevan: kovai iva

Maori (Cook Islands): purūmu

Marquesan: hopa, hopa, hopa, hopa, kaepu, ouou, pou, puehu, puehu au va‘a va‘a, pulumi, tateavi

Nauruan: itsi

Niuean: mautofu, motofu

Palauan: keak

Pohnpeian: kahwinyotz, koiohnleng, koramahd, koyolung, oiohnleng

Samoan: mautofu, mautofu, mautofu

Spanish: angosacha, escoba, escoba negra, escobilla, huinar, malva

Tahitian: boromu, burume, burumi, koa, kovai iva, porumu, purum, purumu, purūmu, ta‘ano

Tongan: matala hoatā, te‘ehoosi, te‘ehosi

Tuamotuan: porumu

Wallisian: mautofu, ma‘utofu

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "An erect, semiwoody perennial 0.3 to 1.0 m tall with a strong taproot; stems branched, finely pubescent, woody when mature; leaves alternate, broadest in middle, diverse in size, 1 to 4 cm long, 0.5 to 2 cm wide; rhombic, rhombic-oblong to oblong, narrowed toward apex; obtuse to subcuneate at base; margins obscurely dentate, with teeth acute to rounded, pale green, stellate hairy beneath; stipules bristly, 1-nerved, linear-lanceolate, as long as petiole; inflorescence axillary, solitary flowers on slender pedicel, 2 to 3 cm long, jointed above middle; flower calyx green, cup-shaped, membranous, persistent, ridged at base, with stellate hairs and lobes terminating abruptly into elongated points; corolla of 5 pale yellow petals, 1.5 to 1.8 cm in diameter; fruit a schizocarp with 8 to 10 wrinkled or nearly smooth mericarps, each about 2.5 mm long, not awned, or with awns 1.5 mm long, wedge-shaped with rounded backs; seeds flattened, reniform, 1.25 to 2 mm long, dark brown.  The key characteristics of this weed are the semiwoody stem, stipuled leaves, jointed pedicel, and the persistent calyx surrounding the schizocarp"  (Holm et al., 1997; p. 771).

"Small, tough-stemmed shrub to 1 m tall, stellate-pubescent; stipules linear, 6-9 mm long; leaves ovate or rhombic-ovate, acute, serrate near the apex, glabrous above, pubescent beneath, 1.5-5 cm long, 7-22 mm wide, on petioles about 2-6 mm long (rarely longer); flowers 1 or 2 in in axils, pedicels 1-4 cm long; calyx-lobes deltoid apiculate, corolla yellow, about 6-10 mm wide, rotate; schizocarp nearly 1 cm broad; ripe carpels deltoid, apiculate, 8 or 10 or rarely to 12, stellate-pubescent dorsally, 2-lobed, about 3-4.5 mm long; seeds black"  (Stone, 1970; p. 415).

Habitat/ecology:  "A persistent, semiwoody weed common in pastures, roadsides, waste areas and short- and long-season crops through tropical and subtropical regions. [It] grows from sea level to 2000 m above sea level in many soil types and from fertile to degraded conditions.  Plants grow best in non-disturbed sites but are also found in cultivated land" (Holm et al., 1997; pp. 769, 771).  "Arrowleaf sida grows only in disturbed areas and in situations where overhead competition is controlled or naturally light. It is common in cultivated fields, pastures, abandoned farmland, roadsides, vacant lots, construction sites, landslides, and river overflow areas. It does not survive in tall grass swards, tall brushlands, and closed forests. Arrowleaf sida grows on both fertile and degraded soils of all textures and derived from most parent materials. It may be found growing from near sea level to 2,000 m in elevation (Holm and others 1997). In Puerto Rico, the species grows in areas receiving from 900 to 3000 mm of precipitation"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in disturbed areas, 0-1,240 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 898-899).  In Fiji, occurring from near sea level to an elevation of 900 m as an abundantly naturalized weed in waste places, gardens, pastures, coconut plantations, thickets, and clearings, along roadsides, and on open hillsides among reeds and ferns" (Smith, 1981; pp. 437-438).  "An abundant weed of plantations and waste places all over Niue although it is less common in the plantations of the forest interior.  It is a major nuisance in plantations because of the strong, almost woody stems and the firm root system" (Sykes, 1970; p. 117).  "Very common on roadsides, in plantations, and in sunny waste places, and is often a dominant species in these habitats" (Whistler, 1983; p. 56). In the Galápagos Islands, "principally along trails and in open habitats" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 690-691). In New Guinea, "a weed of roadsides, cultivation and pastures, where it may become dominant under heavy grazing. From low altitudes to 2000 m, widespread and common" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 123). In Tonga, "a common roadside and waste-area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 182).

Propagation:  Seed.  "The awned mericarps are spread by adhering to clothing and livestock, in mud on vehicles, and as contaminants in hay and seed crops" (Smith, 2002; pp. 40-41).  "The seeds are dispersed by water, farm machinery, ruminant animals, and in impure agricultural seed. Ants disperse the seeds in Africa (Holm and others 1997)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

Native range:  Unknown, now pantropical. "An aboriginal introduction to Western Polynesia" (Whistler, 1988; p. 30).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Garber 1020
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Garber 1020 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 54)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 35354)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Garber 1075
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Garber 1075 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. Field notes.)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Garber 548, Harris 16, Harris 88, Harris 195, Yuncker 9144, Whistler 1381
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 50)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9144 (BISH), Garber 548 (BISH), W. Harris 16 (BISH), W. Harris 88 (BISH), W. Harris 195 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (year unknown) (voucher ID: PTBG 34598)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 9513)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 12)
Vouchers cited: Whistler 3365, Bryan 930, Bryan 1370, Schultz 9
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 3)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (pp. 70-71)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 207)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 20)
"A weed of wasteland etc.,". Vouchers cited: L.A.S. Johnson & A.N. Rodd 1208 (NSW), J. Pickard 2678 (NSW) J. Pickard 3464 (NSW), J.D. McComish 65 (K)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 9)
"A weed of wasteland etc.,". Vouchers cited: G. Uhe 1226 (K), R.M. Laing (CHR)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 33)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31421 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 33)
Vouchers cited: Moore 400 (US), Moore 403 (US), Marche 150 (P, Fo), Bosberg 31361 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1971) (voucher ID: PTBG 23438)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 33)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1781 (US), Evans 2346 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Also var. microphylla.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1982) (voucher ID: PTBG 23437)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Pukapuka Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Etten Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Parem (Param) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Ulalu (Romonum) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 20)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 24883)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Also var. longipedicellata.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 68)
Vouchers cited: Glassman 2462 (US), Glassman 2801 (US), Kanehira 1558 (NY)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 109)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 3841 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4100 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 74 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 182 (NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 54 (BISH, NY, PTBG), E. Eperiam 34 (NY), F.R. Fosberg 26412a (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 58316 (BISH), R. Gallen 72 (NY, PTBG), R. Gallen 73b (NY), S.F. Glassman 2462 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2801 (BISH), T. Hosokawa 5570 (BISH), R. Kanehira 1558 (BISH), F. Sohl 35 (NY, PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2006) (voucher ID: PTBG 34891)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 39144)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 22135)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 33537)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 42986)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 43646)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 43657)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 43658)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46670 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Gagil (Gagil-Tamil) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 517)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 437-438)
Voucher cited: Smith 297
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 437-438)
Voucher cited: Seeman 16
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 437-438)
Voucher cited: Bryan 316c
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 437-438)
Voucher cited: DA 5715
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 437-438)
Vouchers cited: DA 10471, Bierhorst F215
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 437-438)
Voucher cited: DA 10234
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 437-438)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 98, Smith 4112, DA 10377, DA 10173, DA 9777, Smith 9446, DA 11447, DA 2830, DA 7043, DA 10021, DA 2638, DA 3368, DA 10571, Meebold 16535
French Polynesia
Clipperton Island
Clipperton (Arue, Avera) Island   Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 93)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: St. John 14627 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 19)
Vouchers cited: St. John 14507 (BISH), St. John 14880 (BISH), Agassiz 114 (GH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: Quayle & Curtis 460 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Totegegie Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Totegegie Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. rhombifolia. Voucher cited: J. Florence, S.P. Perlman & M. Teikiteetini 9354 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: B.G. Decker 1025 (PAP), B.G. Decker 1091 (PAP), B.G. Decker 1269 (PAP), B.G. Decker 1273 (PAP), M.-H. Sachet 2192 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1963) (voucher ID: PTBG 8442)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1975) (voucher ID: PTBG 8905)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: B. Toutain 4277 (PAP), J. Florence 4105 (PAP), J. Florence 8446 (PAP), B.G. Decker 2130 (PAP), B.G. Decker 2199 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: B.G. Decker 1483 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12077 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 178)
Voucher cited: BRY 25751
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11658 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maiao (Maiaoiti, Mauiti, Tupuaemanu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maiao (Maiaoiti, Mauiti, Tupuaemanu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 48)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64832 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5020 (PAP), J. Florence 2129 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Sachet 951 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 178)
Vouchers cited: Moore 13, BRY 25751
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3455 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5231 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4034 (PAP), J. Florence 2263 (PAP), J. Florence 3919 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 64995 (PAP), P.A. Savatier s.n. (PAP), J. Lépine 14 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 54603 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 20)
Vouchers cited: Sachet 1987 (US), Grant 4849 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2987 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10117 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: M.-H. Sachet 1388 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Sachet 2054 (US)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7104 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5621 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence (legit J. Trichet) 6450 (PAP), N. Hallé 7584 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5534 (PAP), J. Florence 6109 (PAP), J. Florence 5958 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 415)
Voucher cited: Stone 3791 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 23436)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island probably introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 898-899)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island probably introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 898-899)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island probably introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 898-899)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island probably introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 898-899)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island probably introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 898-899)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island probably introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 898-899)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island probably introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 898-899)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island probably introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 898-899)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll   Chock, Alvin K./Hamilton, Jr., Dean C. (1962) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Bergman 18
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 27)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll introduced
invasive
Christophersen, Erling (1927) (pp. 26, 78)
Voucher cited: Bergman 18
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 27)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
invasive
Christophersen, Erling (1927) (pp. 56, 78)
In waste places at the settlement. Voucher cited: Bergman 87
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 76)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 77)
Voucher specimens collected: Imada 2003-47 (BISH 697662); Imada 2003-71 (BISH 697686)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 21)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 167-168)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58621 (US), Scully 138N (US), Swarbrick 9575 (BRIU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 99)
Voucher cited: Veillon 3373
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 382)
Rudérale, nombreuses localités
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 99)
Vouchers cited: Vieillard 139, Cribs 1165, MacKee 4315
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 99)
Voucher cited: Buchholz 1634
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 837)
"A well-established and persistent local weed of pasture, lawn, and coastal sands and gravels".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 114)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 117)
Vouchers cited: CHR 170347, CHR 170353
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 30)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 38)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 81)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 10037 (BISH), Yuncker 10044 (BISH), Yuncker 10120 (BISH), Yuncker 10209 (BISH)
"A common roadside and plantation weed".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 50)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 104)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 102)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 10172)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia L. var.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1950) (voucher ID: PTBG 21930)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngedbus (Ngedebus) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 518)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 164-165)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 516)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 107)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 108)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago invasive
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 361)
A widespread, common weed.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 46)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 123)
From low altitudes to 2000 m, widespread and common.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 65)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 769)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 35)
A common weed in and about towns.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 41)
Vouchers cited: St. John 14974, Fosberg & R. Clark 11227
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 244-246)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10745 (PAP)
Adventice
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 30)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 109)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 166)
Dominant invader.
Tokelau
Tokelau Islands
Tokelau Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 236)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 284, Soakai 523
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Scarth-Johnson 86
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 182)
"Common throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Soakai 373
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 182)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15430, Yuncker 15540, Yuncker 15543
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 23739)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: Graeffe 1536, Setchell & Parks 15309, Lawrence 58, Efaureufe? 12?, Soakai 176, Soakai 441, Soakai 603, Soakai 608
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 182)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15118
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 349)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 182)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 545
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 182)
Cited: Crosby.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 27)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (2000) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 990514-2 (BISH)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 180)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 36)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 30)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 769)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 40-41)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 40-41)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 769)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 769)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 100)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 769)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 772)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 769)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 336)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 772)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 772)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 769)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
subsp. rhombifolia and subsp. retusa Borss.
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 769)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 769)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 837)
"A well-established and persistent local weed of pasture, lawn, and coastal sands and gravels".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 772)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 769)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 80)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 769)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 769)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 769)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 18)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 28)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38084)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida rhombifolia L.
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 336)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 128)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7273b (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Gwynne & Wood 1027 (EA)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 54)
Vouchers cited: Robertson 2651, Robertson 2749

Comments:  A declared noxious weed in the Northern Territory, Australia (Smith, 2002; pp. 40-41).

Control: 

Chemical: "Somewhat tolerant of 2,4-D, dicamba and triclopyr.  High end of label rates required.  Probably a good idea to mow and treat regrowth.  Australian sources indicate good control with wick applications of glyphosate using double passes at right angles"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Fact sheet from "Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: thamnic descriptions" (PDF format).

Additional online information about Sida rhombifolia is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Sida rhombifolia as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Sida rhombifolia may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Anon. 1988. Weed list for American Samoa by cropping system. Checklist dated 07/13/88, origin unknown. 3 pp.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1967. Voucher specimen #BNM516(Hardy, S. 29).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1968. Voucher specimen #BNM517(Blackburn, B. 254).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1968. Voucher specimen #BNM518(Kluding, P. 20).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1978. Voucher specimen #BNM10172(Otobed, D.O. PW-10172).

Burkill, I. H. 1900. The flora of Vavau, one of the Tonga Islands, with a short account of its vegetation by Charles Steele Crosby. Lin. Jour. Bot. 35:20-65.

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chock, Alvin K./Hamilton, Jr., Dean C. 1962. Plants of Christmas Island. Atoll Res. Bull. 90. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 7 pp.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Christophersen, Erling. 1927. Vegetation of the Pacific equatorial islands. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 44 [Whippoorwill Expedition publication 2]. Honolulu. 79 pp.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J. 2004. Flore de la PolynÚsie franšaise, Vol. 2. Paris. IRE Editions, Publications Scientifiques, Collection Faune et Flore Tropicales 41. 503 pp.

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Foreman, D. B. 1971. A check list of the vascular plants of Bougainville, with descriptions of some common forest trees. Botany Bulletin No. 5. Division of Botany, Department of Forests. Lae, New Guinea. 194 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. 1969. A collection of plants from Fais, Caroline Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 133. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 15 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. 1975. Vascular flora of the northern Marianas Islands. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 22:1-45.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of the Gilbert Islands, Kiribati, checklist. Atoll Res. Bull. 295:1-33.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. The Smithsonian Institution. Atoll Research Bulletin 294:1-70.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. 1983. List of the recorded vascular flora of Agalega. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Francis, John K., ed. 2009. Wildland Shrubs of the United States and its Territories: Thamnic Descriptions General Technical Report IITF-WB-1 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry and Shrub Sciences Laboratory (online resource).

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

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Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. 2nd edition. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 7. Lae, Papua New Guinea. 180 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James. 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution. John Wiley & Sons. 1129 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. 2002. Invasive/weedy angiosperms in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. In: Invasive species and their management. Micronesica Suppl. 6:61-65.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Merlin, M./Juvik, J. 1996. Irá me neeniier nón Chuuk: Plants and their Environments in Chuuk. Program on Environment, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, 121 pp. .

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 3 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 628 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 0. Voucher specimen #PTBG34598(collector unknown; collector's voucher number unknown).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1995. Voucher specimen #PTBG38084(Art Whistler 9782).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1996. Voucher specimen #PTBG24883(Tim Flynn 6045).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1997. Voucher specimen #PTBG23739(K. R. Wood 6863).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG236(Tim Flynn 6873).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG39144(R. Gallen 73 b).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG35354(David H. Lorence 8650).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2006. Voucher specimen #PTBG34891(F. Sohl 35).

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

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Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. 1983. Vegetation of Frégate Island, Seychelles. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

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Sachet, M.-H. 1962. Geography and land ecology of Clipperton Island. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 86. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 115 pp.

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Sachet, M.-H. 1983. Botanique de l'ile de Tupai, Iles de la Societe. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 276. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 26 pp. + photos.

Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. 1983. An ecological reconnaissance of Tetiaroa Atoll, Society Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 275. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 67 pp. + photos.

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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 6 DEC 2010.