Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Sida cordifolia
L., Malvaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 15 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xin ye huang hua ren

English: country mallow, flannelweed, heart-leaf sida, heartleaf sida, sida

Hawaiian: lei ilima

Tuamotuan: miri taratoni, purumi

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Erect subshrubs 0.5-1.5 m tall, whitish to yellowish stellate velutinous or stellate tomentose. Leaf blades ovate to oblong or sometimes orbicular, 2-10 (-12) cm long, margins serrate, base usually shallowly cordate, petioles usually 1/3 or more the length of blades, stipules filiform, 3-7 mm long. Flowers usually in axillary clusters, often forming dense panicles or corymbs of racemes by reduction of leaves; calyx 5-7 mm long, accrescent and clasping in fruit; petals cream to pale yellow or orangish yellow, 7-9 mm long; staminal column included. Schizocarp 6-7 mm in diameter, mericarps 8-12 (-14), brownish, the body 2.8-3.5 mm long, with 2 retrorsely simple pubescent apical awns 2-4 (-5) mm long, dorsal and lateral surfaces rugose-reticulate. Seeds 1.8-2.3 mm long, glabrous or with a few hairs along the raphe" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 897).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in dry sites" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 897). In New Guinea, "a weed of abandoned cultivation and pastures, also occurring naturally in savannah. From sea level to about 700 m, mainly in regions of limited seasonal rainfall" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 122).

Propagation:  Seed.  "The awned mericarps are spread by adhering to clothing and livestock, in mud on vehicles, and as contaminants in hay and seed crops" (Smith, 2002; pp. 40-41).

Native range:  Pantropical.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
French Polynesia
French Polynesia Islands
French Polynesia Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 65)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 240-242)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4502 (PAP), J. Florence 11099 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 240-242)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3082 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 240-242)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11131 (PAP)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 65)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 897)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 41)
Voucher cited: T. Flynn et al. 4436 (BISH, PTBG, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H100630 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 897)
East Maui
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 26)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer, M. Chimera & F. Quitazol H100520 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 26)
Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H120619 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H120620 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: W. Char, S. Ching-Hrabin & M. LeGrande s.n. (BISH 690736)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 382)
Rudérale, nombreuses localités
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 98)
Vouchers cited: Franc 2268, Virot 1095, MacKee 4061, MacKee 16071, MacKee 33844, MacKee 29985
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 122)
From sea level to about 700 m, mainly in regions of limited seasonal rainfall.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 65)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 34)
In and about towns, a weed in open dry waste places.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 233)
Taxon name on voucher: Sida cordifolia
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Nomuka Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 181)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15803
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 40-41)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 40-41)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Scrub on slopes, grassy roadsides. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 100)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 335)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 335)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 80)
Common
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Scrub on slopes, grassy roadsides.
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 335)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)

Comments:  A declared noxious weed in Western Australia and the Northern Territory (Smith, 2002; pp. 40-41).


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This page was created on 6 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 25 OCT 2006.