Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Setaria pumila
(Poir.) Roem. & Schult., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Setaria glauca auct. [= Setaria pumila subsp. pumila]; Setaria lutescens (Stuntz) F. T. Hubb. [= Setaria pumila subsp. pumila]; Setaria pallidefusca (Schumach.) Stapf & C. E. Hubb. [= Setaria pumila subsp. pallidefusca]

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: jin se gou wei cao

English: cat's tail grass, horsegrass, pigeon grass, Queensland pigeon grass, yellow foxtail

French: millet sauvage

Yapese: gatewel

Habit:  grass

Description:  "A tufted annual grass with fibrous roots; stems erect, 25 to 60 cm tall, smooth, slender, often rooting from lower nodes; leaf sheath 3 to 8 cm long, glabrous; blade 10 to 15 cm long, 6 to 10 mm wide, smooth except for a few hairs at base, tapering to a fine tip; ligule a shallow membrane topped with stiff bristles, 1.2 to 1.5 mm long; inflorescence an erect, cylindrical spike-like panicle 2 to 10 cm long with successive short clusters of 2 spikelets (one fertile) each subtended by involucre of 6 to 10 pale yellow, golden, orange or reddish brown to purple persistent bristles; spikelets 2 to 2.5 mm long; lower glume 1- to 3-nerved, 1.4 mm long; upper glume 5-nerved, 1.6 mm long, the nerves joining towards tip; lower floret usually sterile, with flat, obscurely 5- to 7-veined lemma and flat, membranous palea; upper floret fertile, stamens 3, stigmas 2, lemma boat-shaped with prominent transverse wrinkles; palea nearly flat, finely wrinkled; both lemma and palea hard and leathery when mature; fruit a caryopsis 1.4 mm long with coarsely rugose back, nearly flat face and punctiform hilum; apex 3-toothed, dark.  This species is characterized by the smooth, fine-pointed leaves, hairy ligule and purplish red bristles of young inflorescences that turn yellow to golden brown when mature" (Holm et al., 1997; p. 767).

"Nearly glabrous perennial [grass]; culms to 50 cm long, somewhat branched at base; pubescent just beneath the panicle; blades linear, 10-24 cm long with hairs near the ligule, the ligule of short hairs; sheaths slightly flattened, glabrous; panicle cylindric, to 10 cm long, yellow, the axils pilose-scabrous with spreading bristles 8-10 mm long beneath each spikelet; spikelets ovate, 2-2.5 mm long, pale; first glume 3-nerved, half as long as the spikelet; second glume 5-nerved; sterile lemma equaling the spikelet and 5-nerved; fertile lemma ovate, finely rugulose, obtuse, shiny" (Stone, 1970; pp. 224-225).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Infests dryland crops, roadsides, waste areas, ditches and occasionally grasslands.  It is adapted to a wide range of soils and climates and is especially well suited to dry soil conditions"  (Holm et al., 1997; p. 767).

Tonga, "occasional in open areas" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 62). In New Caledonia, "commun en terrains vagues et bords de chemins" (MacKee, 1994; p. 62).

Propagation:  Barbed seeds carried in fur, feathers or clothing.

Native range:  Old World tropics; probably native to Micronesia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 430395)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 430370)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
Subsp. pallidefusca (Schumach.) B.K. Simon "A locally common weed". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 359 (CHR), W.R. Sykes NI 999 (CHR)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 58-59)
?
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 58-59)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 65)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59226
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 58-59)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 12)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 572168)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 588182)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 58-59)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 58-59)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 664863)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 415799)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 420149)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 666484)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 667938)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 58-59)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 126824)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 31613)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 126787)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 126786)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 126785)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 31612)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 31627)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 126782)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 126783)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 126784)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 126788)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 126789)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 126790)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1942) (voucher ID: BISH 126791)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 415783)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Setaria pallide-fusca. Voucher cited: B. Toutain 4247 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491178)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 344)
Voucher cited: Florence 9790
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 558169)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Setaria pallidefusca (C.F. Schumacher) O. Stapf & C.E. Hubbard
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Setaria pallidefusca (C.F. Schumacher) O. Stapf & C.E. Hubbard. Voucher cited: J. Florence 9196 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Setaria pallidefusca (C.F. Schumacher) O. Stapf & C.E. Hubbard
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 224-225)
Vouchers cited: MacGregor 383, G.E.S. 15, G.E.S. 61
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 58-59)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 126819)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1911) (voucher ID: BISH 126823)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 588170)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Japan (offshore islands)
Minami Tori Shima (Marcus) Island
Minami Tori Shima (Marcus) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 58-59)
?
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 58-59)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: MacKee 11464
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 654878)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines)   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 126820)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 586)
"Open pasture, waste places, roadsides, footpaths, old gardens, cultivated ground".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 176)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (p. 458)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 58-59)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1997) (voucher ID: BISH 697858)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3089)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Schum.) Stapf. & Hubb.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 172)
Throughout New Guinea, from sea level to at least 6,000 ft.; scattered in open grassland, on roadsides and headlands, and a weed of cultivation.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 765)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 765)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: St. John 15016
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Setaria pallidefusca (C.F. Schumacher) O. Stapf & C.E. Hubbard
Adventice
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 71)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 68)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1893) (voucher ID: BISH 126810)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417485)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 109)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 75)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Nomuka Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15826
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Nomuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 126813)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 62)
"Occasional throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15445
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 126812)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 56)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15152
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1926) (voucher ID: BISH 126811)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34305)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria pumila (oir.) Roem. & Schult
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 735)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 735)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Li-ying, Li/Ren, Wang/Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 174)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 347)
As Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. In forests, on hillslopes, along roadside and in wasteland. As Setaria pallidefusca (Schumach.) Stapf & Hubb. [= Setaria pumila subsp. pallidefusca]. On hillslopes, in wet places.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 765)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 765)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 765)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 765)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 586)
"Open pasture, waste places, roadsides, footpaths, old gardens, cultivated ground".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 765)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 765)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 768)

Comments:  Should not be introduced where it's not present.

Additional information:
Additional online information about Setaria pumila is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Setaria pumila as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Setaria pumila may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1981. Voucher specimen #BNM3089(Timberlake, J. 3089).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 126819 (Thompson, J.B. 61).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1893. Voucher specimen #BISH 126810 (Reinecke 108).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1911. Voucher specimen #BISH 126823 (McGregor, M.C. 383).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 126787 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 609).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1926. Voucher specimen #BISH 126811 (Setchell, W.A. 15398).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 126783 (Gillespie, J.W. 3574).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 126784 (Gillespie, J.W. 3607).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 126788 (Gillespie, J.W. 4150.1).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1942. Voucher specimen #BISH 126791 (Greenwood, W. 962).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 126790 (Greenwood, W. 962A).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 588182 (Hosaka, E.Y. 3031).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 126785 (Smith, A.C. 6631).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 126789 (Smith, A.C. 4270).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1948. Voucher specimen #BISH 126820 (Buchholz, J.T. 1651).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1948. Voucher specimen #BISH 126824 (Wong, C.C.Y. 342).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 126782 (Smith, A.C. 9455).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 126786 (Smith, A.C. 8125).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 126812 (Yuncker, T.G. 15445).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 126813 (Yuncker, T.G. 15826).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 588170 (Fosberg, F.R. 35319).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 31612 (Parham, J.W. 7430).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 31627 (Parham, J.W. 7317).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1955. Voucher specimen #BISH 31613 (Koroi, U. 9071).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 417485 (Whistler, W.A. W1075).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 430370 (Whistler, W.A. W2815).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 430395 (Whistler, W.A. W3691).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 415783 (Krauss, N.L.H. 1472).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 415799 (Krauss, N.L.H. 1488).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 420149 (Krauss, N.L.H. 1532).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491178 (Florence, J. 4119).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 558169 (Florence, J. 4471).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 572168 (Raulerson, L. 9360).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 666484 (Sykes, W.R. 473894).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 667938 (Sykes, W.R. 467858).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 664863 (Sykes, W.R. 474578).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 654878 (Koyama, H. 8032).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1997. Voucher specimen #BISH 697858 (Herbst, D.R. 9836).

Edgar, E./Connor, H. 2000. Flora of New Zealand, vol. V: Gramineae. Manaaki Whenua Press. .

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesica 20:1-126.

Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar. 1980. Grass weeds, vol. 1. CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 142 pp. + plates.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Henty, E. E. 1969. A manual of the grasses of New Guinea. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 1. Lae, New Guinea. 215 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James. 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution. John Wiley & Sons. 1129 pp.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Li-ying, Li/Ren, Wang/Waterhouse, D. F. 1997. The distribution and importance of arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture and forestry plantations in southern China. ACIAR, Canberra, Australia. 185 pp.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

McIntyre, Guy. 1991. Weeds of sugar cane in Mauritius, their description and control. Mauritius Sugar Industry Reseach Institute. 151 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG34305(Tim Flynn 6835).

Ohba, T. 1994. Flora and vegetation of the northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia. Biological Expedition to the Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia. In A. Asakua & T. Furuki, eds.  Natural History Research, Special issue no. 1, Chiba, Japan: Natural History Museum and Institute. pp. 13-69.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Parham, J. W. 1958. The weeds of Fiji. Department of Agriculture, Fiji. Bulletin No. 35. 196 pp.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

St. John, H. 1987. An account of the flora of Pitcairn Island with new Pandanus species. Pacific Plant Studies 46. Honolulu, 65 pp. [Privately published].

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1977. Kermadec Islands flora: an annotated checklist. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 219, Wellington. 216 pp.

Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. 1996. New records and other information on the vascular flora of the Kermadec Islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34:447-462.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.