Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Setaria palmifolia
(J.Koenig) Stapf, Poaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Panicum palmaefolium Koenig

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: zong ye gou wei cao

English: bristlegrass, broadleaved bristlegrass, hailans pitpit, highland pitpit, knotroot, palmgrass, short pitpit

Samoan: vao ‘ofe‘ofe

Spanish: pasto de palma

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennial [grass]; culms erect,  10-20 dm tall, appressed-hispid below and at nodes.  Sheaths papillose-hispid; ligule membranous, margins ciliate, apex rounded to truncate; blades narrowly elliptic, up to 50 cm long, up to 90 mm wide, strongly nerved, plicate, upper surface scabrous, lower surface pubescent, apex acuminate, base narrowed.  Panicles open, up to 60 cm long, axis scabrous, nodes puberulent, primary branches numerous, ascending to spreading, up to 20 cm long, slender, scabrous, the bristles subtending the spikelet solitary, ca. 10 mm long; spikelets green, in racemose clusters on short, secondary or tertiary branchlets, lanceolate, ca. 4 mm long, glabrous, pedicels scabrous, 1-4 mm long; first glume ovate, 0.8-1.5 mm long, 3-nerved, apex obtuse; second glume 2-2.5 mm long, 7-nerved; first lemma with a point extending slightly beyond the caryopsis, 5-nerved; first palea narrow, hyaline, ca. 2/3 as long as the first lemma; second lemma lanceolate, with a short, somewhat incurved point, obscurely transversely rugose; second palea similar to second lemma.  Caryopsis pale brown, ovoid, compressed, ca. 2 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1592-1593).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  This large-leaved, perennial grass reaches heights of almost 2 m, shading out other herbaceous vegetation.  It is well adapted to fire.  It is usually found in wet areas from 300-2000 m (Smith, 1985; p. 203).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and often common in mesic valleys, wet forest, and along streams, 240-1,160 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1592-1593); "displaces forages in pastures and natives in disturbed areas in mesic to wet forests"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  In Fiji, "naturalized in places in the vicinity of Suva"  (Smith, 1979; . 350).

Propagation:  Seed distributed by wind or granivorous birds.

Native range:  India.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 205)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"Presumably first introduced to the Islands as an ornamental. It may well be established and spreading.". Vouchers cited: L.M. Bingley 33 (K), A.C. Beauglehole 5462 (CANB, MEL), A.C. Beauglehole 5758 (CANB, MEL), J. Pickard 2681 (NSW), I.R. Telford 10382 (CBG, K)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"Presumably first introduced to the Islands as an ornamental. Only one specimen has been seen from Norfolk Is., collected in 1943". Voucher cited: F.C. Allen 170 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 40, 43)
"La graminée Setaria cf. palmifolia reconnaissable à ses larges feuilles, considérée « commun et envahissant dans les zones habitées » (Lefeuvre et al., 2005; page 49), est localement naturalisée en bordure de route à Mataveri et à la CONAF où elle forme des couverts denses" (Meyer, 2008; p. 40).
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 350)
Vouchers cited: DA 2538, B.E.V. Parham 10873 (CHR 181988)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1940) (voucher ID: BISH 31628)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 31681)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 94)
"Potential invader".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Space, Jim (2004)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1592-1593)
Voucher cited: Carter s. n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: C. Imada 2001-73 (BISH, K, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1592-1593)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1592-1593)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2006) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H30414 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1592-1593)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 26)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 172)
Throughout New Guinea from near sea level to 7,000 ft., mainly in damp, partially shaded situations.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (pp. 73-74)
Common in thickets, old clearings, abacá plantations, etc., at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 200 m.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 11)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417677)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 417854)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 439231)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 330)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria palmifolia
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 109)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 128)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 7)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 347)
In valleys and in wet places under forests.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 584)
"Escape from gardens; waste ground".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 333)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Forming extensive monospecific stands on Upolu, Samoa, particularly in the Vailima Reserve and around Alaoa (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Weedy in pastures in Tahiti.

Invasive in Hawai‘i.

On New Zealand noxious weed list and banned from sale in that country.

Control:  "Rhizomes and root masses resprout constantly and seed banks occasionally reinfest bared areas.  Frequent and regular follow up required until eradication. 

Physical:  Dig out small patches (all year round). Dispose of at refuse transfer station or burn"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

Chemical: "DOFAW foresters on Kauai controlled palmgrass with drizzle applications of glyphosate at 0.75 lb/acre.  However, reinvasion required constant monitoring and re-treatment until the seed reservoir was exhausted.  HAVO staff reported control with foliar application of glyphosate at 1% of product (Chris Zimmer, HAVO)"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

"1. Spray (active growth stage): glyphosate (20ml/L + penetrant). 2. Stem injection (active growth stage): 2 ml undiluted glyphosate into root masses, 150 mm apart"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 11 FEB 2010.