Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Setaria palmifolia
(J.Koenig) Stapf, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Panicum palmaefolium Koenig

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: zong ye gou wei cao

English: bristlegrass, broadleaved bristlegrass, hailans pitpit, highland pitpit, knotroot, palmgrass, short pitpit

Samoan: vao ‘ofe‘ofe

Spanish: pasto de palma

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennial [grass]; culms erect,  10-20 dm tall, appressed-hispid below and at nodes.  Sheaths papillose-hispid; ligule membranous, margins ciliate, apex rounded to truncate; blades narrowly elliptic, up to 50 cm long, up to 90 mm wide, strongly nerved, plicate, upper surface scabrous, lower surface pubescent, apex acuminate, base narrowed.  Panicles open, up to 60 cm long, axis scabrous, nodes puberulent, primary branches numerous, ascending to spreading, up to 20 cm long, slender, scabrous, the bristles subtending the spikelet solitary, ca. 10 mm long; spikelets green, in racemose clusters on short, secondary or tertiary branchlets, lanceolate, ca. 4 mm long, glabrous, pedicels scabrous, 1-4 mm long; first glume ovate, 0.8-1.5 mm long, 3-nerved, apex obtuse; second glume 2-2.5 mm long, 7-nerved; first lemma with a point extending slightly beyond the caryopsis, 5-nerved; first palea narrow, hyaline, ca. 2/3 as long as the first lemma; second lemma lanceolate, with a short, somewhat incurved point, obscurely transversely rugose; second palea similar to second lemma.  Caryopsis pale brown, ovoid, compressed, ca. 2 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1592-1593).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  This large-leaved, perennial grass reaches heights of almost 2 m, shading out other herbaceous vegetation.  It is well adapted to fire.  It is usually found in wet areas from 300-2000 m (Smith, 1985; p. 203).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and often common in mesic valleys, wet forest, and along streams, 240-1,160 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1592-1593); "displaces forages in pastures and natives in disturbed areas in mesic to wet forests"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  In Fiji, "naturalized in places in the vicinity of Suva"  (Smith, 1979; . 350).

Propagation:  Seed distributed by wind or granivorous birds.

Native range:  India.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 205)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"Presumably first introduced to the Islands as an ornamental. It may well be established and spreading.". Vouchers cited: L.M. Bingley 33 (K), A.C. Beauglehole 5462 (CANB, MEL), A.C. Beauglehole 5758 (CANB, MEL), J. Pickard 2681 (NSW), I.R. Telford 10382 (CBG, K)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"Presumably first introduced to the Islands as an ornamental. Only one specimen has been seen from Norfolk Is., collected in 1943". Voucher cited: F.C. Allen 170 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 40, 43)
"La graminée Setaria cf. palmifolia reconnaissable à ses larges feuilles, considérée « commun et envahissant dans les zones habitées » (Lefeuvre et al., 2005; page 49), est localement naturalisée en bordure de route à Mataveri et à la CONAF où elle forme des couverts denses" (Meyer, 2008; p. 40).
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 350)
Vouchers cited: DA 2538, B.E.V. Parham 10873 (CHR 181988)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1940) (voucher ID: BISH 31628)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 31681)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 94)
"Potential invader".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Space, Jim (2004)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1592-1593)
Voucher cited: Carter s. n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: C. Imada 2001-73 (BISH, K, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1592-1593)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1592-1593)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2006) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H30414 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1592-1593)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 26)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 172)
Throughout New Guinea from near sea level to 7,000 ft., mainly in damp, partially shaded situations.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (pp. 73-74)
Common in thickets, old clearings, abacá plantations, etc., at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 200 m.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 11)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417677)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 417854)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 439231)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 330)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria palmifolia
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 109)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 128)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 7)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 347)
In valleys and in wet places under forests.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 584)
"Escape from gardens; waste ground".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 333)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Forming extensive monospecific stands on Upolu, Samoa, particularly in the Vailima Reserve and around Alaoa (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Weedy in pastures in Tahiti.

Invasive in Hawai‘i.

On New Zealand noxious weed list and banned from sale in that country.

Control:  "Rhizomes and root masses resprout constantly and seed banks occasionally reinfest bared areas.  Frequent and regular follow up required until eradication. 

Physical:  Dig out small patches (all year round). Dispose of at refuse transfer station or burn"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

Chemical: "DOFAW foresters on Kauai controlled palmgrass with drizzle applications of glyphosate at 0.75 lb/acre.  However, reinvasion required constant monitoring and re-treatment until the seed reservoir was exhausted.  HAVO staff reported control with foliar application of glyphosate at 1% of product (Chris Zimmer, HAVO)"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

"1. Spray (active growth stage): glyphosate (20ml/L + penetrant). 2. Stem injection (active growth stage): 2 ml undiluted glyphosate into root masses, 150 mm apart"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Information sheet from Weedbusters New Zealand.

Additional online information about Setaria palmifolia is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Setaria palmifolia as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Setaria palmifolia may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1940. Voucher specimen #BISH 31628 (Parham, B.E. 2538).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1962. Voucher specimen #BISH 31681 (Solvalu, F.S. 12589).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 417677 (Whistler, W.A. W631).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1974. Voucher specimen #BISH 417854 (Whistler, W.A. W1670).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1979. Voucher specimen #BISH 439231 (Cox, P.A. 164).

Cardenas, Juan/Reys, Carlos E./Doll, Jerry D./Pardo, Fernando. 1972. Tropical weeds; malezas tropicales, vol. 1. International Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 341 pp.

Edgar, E./Connor, H. 2000. Flora of New Zealand, vol. V: Gramineae. Manaaki Whenua Press. .

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Foreman, D. B. 1971. A check list of the vascular plants of Bougainville, with descriptions of some common forest trees. Botany Bulletin No. 5. Division of Botany, Department of Forests. Lae, New Guinea. 194 pp.

Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar. 1980. Grass weeds, vol. 1. CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 142 pp. + plates.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Henty, E. E. 1969. A manual of the grasses of New Guinea. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 1. Lae, New Guinea. 215 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James. 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution. John Wiley & Sons. 1129 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1925. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 1 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 463 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2008. Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Île de pâques) [Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 62 pp. .

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG330(Tim Flynn 6969).

Oppenheimer, Hank L. 2006. New Hawai‘i plant records for 2004. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004-2005. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 88:10-15.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Owen, S. J. 1997. Ecological weeds on conservation land in New Zealand: A database. Working draft. Wellington, New Zealand. Department of Conservation.

Pickard, J. 1984. Exotic plants on Lord Howe Island: Distribution in space and time, 1853-1981. J. of Biogeography 11:181-208.

Queensland Herbarium. 2002. Invasive Naturalised Plants in Southeast Queensland, alphabetical by genus. Modified from: Batianoff, George N. and Butler, Don W. (2002). Assessment of Invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Appendix. Plant Protection Quarterly 17, 27-34. 11 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 1. 494 pp.

Smith, Clifford W. 1985. Impact of Alien Plants on Hawai‘i's Native Biota. In: Stone, Charles P. and Scott, J. Michael, eds. Hawai‘i's terrestrial ecosystems: preservation and Management. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii, Manoa.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, Jim. 2004. Jim Space, pers. com.

Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. 2003. New Hawaiian plant records for 2001. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2001-2002. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 74:7-21.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Sykes, Bill. 0. Bill Sykes, pers. com.

U. S. Government. 2013. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (on-line resource).

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 11 FEB 2010.