Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Senna surattensis
(Burm.f.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby, Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 0 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Cassia surattensis N.L. Burm

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: huang huai jue ming

English: glaucous cassia, scrambled eggs bush, Singapore shower tree, sunshine tree

Hawaiian: kalamona, kolomona

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Small trees 3-6 m tall.  Leaves 8-18 cm long, leaflets 6-10 pairs, the distal cones larger and proportionately narrower, obovate to elliptic-ovate or oblanceolate, 2-5 cm long, 0.8-2 cm wide, upper surface green and usually glabrous, lower surface glaucous and sparsely appressed pubescent, especially along midrib, apex rounded, emarginate, base obliquely rounded or cuneate, clavate nectaries between the first, second, and sometimes third pairs of leaflets, stipules linear-subulate, 4.5-13 mm long, caducous.  Flowers in racemes 0.4-2.5 cm long, pedicels 15-25 mm long, bracts submembranous, ovate to lanceolate, 2-7 mm long, persistent until anthesis, then deciduous, the lowermost sometimes subtended by a clavate nectary; calyx lobes oblanceolate to oblong-obovate, the outermost 3-4.4 mm long, inner ones 5.5-8 mm long; petals bright yellow or yellowish orange, ovate to oblong-ovate, the longest one 16-24  mm long; fertile stamens 10, all nearly similar to one another, slightly increasing in size toward abaxial side of flower; filaments 9, 0.7-2 mm long, that of central abaxial stamen 1.5-3.5 mm long.  Pods pendulous, chartaceous, strongly compressed, 7-10 cm long, 1.1-1.5 cm wide, base constricted into a stipe 0.5-0.7 cm long, the cavity with narrow interseminal septa.  Seeds oriented transversely in 1 row, compressed parallel to the valves, pale brown, glossy, oblong-ellipsoid, 5-6 mm long, the areole 2.7-3.6 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 702-703).

"Distinguishable by the small tree habit, alternate, pinnately compound leaves, six to ten pairs of leaflets waxy white on the lower surface, five-parted yellow flowers iwth ten stamens, and strap-shaped pods.  A similar ornamental species, Senna siamea (Lamarck) Irwin & Barnaby, kassod tree, differs in having smaller flowers 9-16 mm long and larger fruits 18-30 cm long"  (Whistler, 2000; p. 417).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "cultivated, now persisting and at least sparingly naturalized in low elevation, disturbed sites, 15-100 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 702-703); "shades out forages in mesic pastures"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Of obscure origin, thought to be native to Australia, but Symon (1966) states that it is probably an early introduction there; in India, Burma, Indochina and the Philippine Islands it is planted, sometimes escaping, and it is of uncertain status on the Caroline and Society Islands" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 702-703).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 99)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1946) (voucher ID: PTBG 22656)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna surattensis
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 99)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 17)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40840)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna surattensis
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 48)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island possibly native
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 162)
Voucher cited: Florence 4711
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island possibly native
cultivated
University of California (2006)
"Grown ornamentally but possibly indigenous".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4711 (PAP)
Quelques pieds plantés au bord de la route.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island possibly native
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 162)
Vouchers cited: BRY 26578
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 48)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island possibly native
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 162)
Voucher cited: BRY 26309
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2395 (PAP)
Ornementale communément planté le long des rues. Se naturalise.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 99)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 702-703)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H120648 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 702-703)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2002) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: H. St. John & F.R. Fosberg 12831 (BISH), S. Ishikawa 139 (BISH), H. St. John et al. 12763 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 702-703)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 8)
"Rare; single tree found alongside road of Amata Kabua's".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 80)
Single planted tree.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 74)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45923
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 74)
Voucher cited: MacKee 21877
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 5)
Voucher: Lorence 9924 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 217)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna surattensis
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 219)
In secondary forest and gardens.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 35)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 136)
As Cassia surattensis Burm. f. Hedges, ornamental.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 79)
Casual
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 65)
Senna sulfurea [=Senna surattensis (Burm. f.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby subsp. sulfurea (DC. ex Collad.) Randell]
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 20)
"Rare in semi-open places". Voucher cited: Fosberg 36895.
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  "Not grazed by cattle"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Chemical: "Sensitive to triclopyr and perhaps to other hormone-type herbicides.  Senna obtusifolia, another weedy senna, was sensitive to dicamba and triclopyr but not to MCPA"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 10 FEB 2005 and was last updated on 28 AUG 2010.