Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Senna alata
(L.) Roxb., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 20 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
High risk, score: 10 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))

Other Latin names:  Cassia alata L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: acapulco, akapuku, andadose, candalaria, take-biha

Chinese: chi jia jue ming

Chuukese: arakak, arekak, salai, yarakaak

English: candelabra plant, candle bush, candlestick senna, emperor's candlesticks, golden candelabra tree, ringworm bush, Roman candle tree

Fijian: bai nicagi, mbai ni thangi

French: bois dartre, catépen, dartres, epis d'or, quatre épingle

Hindi: dadmurdan

Kapingamarangi: rakau honuki, tirakahonuki, tuhkehn kilin wai

Kwara‘ae: bakua

Niuean: mulamula

Palauan: kerula besokel, yult

Pohnpeian: truk-en-kili-n-wai, truke-n-kili-n-wai, tuhken kilinwai

Samoan: fa‘i lafa, fa‘i lafa, lā‘au fai lafa, lā‘au fai lafa

Spanish: bajagua, mocoté, palo de abejón

Tongan: fa‘i lafa, la‘au fa‘i lafa, te‘elango

Yapese: flay-n-sabouw, geking sepan

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrubs, 1.5-3 (-5) m tall. Branches greenish, thick, pubescent. Leaves 30-60 cm; stipules persistent, triangular, 6-10 (-15) mm; petiole and rachis with 2 longitudinal ribs and narrow wings; petiolar glands absent; petiolules very short or leaflets subsessile; leaflets 6-12 (-20) pairs, oblong or obovate-oblong, 6-15 x 3.5-7.5 cm, thinly leathery, glabrous, base obliquely truncate, apex obtusely rounded and cuspidate. Racemes axillary, dense, many flowered, or sometimes several racemes forming a terminal panicle, 10-50 cm; peduncles 7-14 cm; bracts caducous, strobilaceous, oblong to broadly ovate, 2-3 x 1-2 cm, at first enveloping flowers. Flowers ca. 2.5 cm in diameter. Sepals orange-yellow, oblong, unequal. Petals bright yellow, tinged with conspicuous purple veins, ovate-orbicular, 16-24 x 10-15 mm, shortly clawed. Stamens 10, fertile stamens 7, opening with apical pores, lower 2 with stout filaments ca. 4 mm and larger anthers, 4 with filaments ca. 2 mm and smaller anthers, reduced stamens 3 or 4. Ovary puberulent, sessile; ovules many. Legume winged, sharply tetragonal, 10-20 x 1.5-2 cm, glabrous, with a broad, membranous wing down middle of each valve; wings 4-8 mm wide, papery, crenulate. Seeds 50-60, compressed, deltoid"  (Flora of China online).

"Coarse erect shrub to 3-4 m tall; leaves to about 50-80 cm long, with 8-14 pairs of large leaflets (the distal ones largest), up to 17 cm long, ovate-oblong, obtuse, truncate, or even slightly notched at apex, subsessile; inflorescence a long-pedunculate erect dense oblong spike, the yellow flowers crowded and overlapping; pod ripening black, straight, papery in texture, winged on the angles (2), up to 15-20 cm long and slightly over 1 cm wide; seeds numerous (to 60), flat" (Stone, 1970; p. 310).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests and forest edges, humid ravines, riverbanks, wood- and grassland.  This short-lived shrub grows best in sunny locations on moist soils and forms dense thickets where invasive.  The large leaves shade out most native plants so that species richness is strongly reduced under canopies of this shrub.  The plant is not nitrogen-fixing.  Seedlings establish and entensive root system in the first year and compete for space and nutrients.  The plant is also a significant agricultural weed"  (Weber, 2003; p. 397).  Prefers open areas and sunlight.  Often forms thickets.  Often grown as an ornamental.  Particularly aggressive in areas where there is a high water table  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 148).

In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and persisting after cultivation or perhaps escaping"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 698); "forms dense stands in pastures"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  In Fiji, "cultivated in gardens and villages and becoming sparingly naturalized in swampy places at elevations from near sea level to about 250 m"  (Smith, 1985; pp. 113-114).  In Guam, "common along roadside, in old  abandoned fields, and other weedy localities"  (Stone, 1970; p. 310).  In Australia, "in perennially moist areas such as along creek lines and drainage channels, and occasionally on disturbed and overgrazed areas"  (Smith, 2002; p. 37). In New Guinea, "a plant of roadsides and waste land, and sometimes troublesome in pasture" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 113).

Propagation:  Seeds; pods and seeds can be distributed by water or animals.  Can also sucker from roots. (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 148).

Native range:  Northern South America (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 40)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 54)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 38)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 153601)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 430363)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 26)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31563 (US), Falanruw 2172 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 24)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 35)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 593727)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia alata
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 71)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 153573)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 153641)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 153646)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 47)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 268 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 153642)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 153639)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 652571)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia alata
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 22262)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 29)
Mostly cultivated, scattered naturalized specimens.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 17)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 153644)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Kapingamarangi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Kapingamarangi Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 153640)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 74)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 96)
Vouchers cited: A. Albert 47 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 65 (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 26124 (BISH), R. Gallen 73 (NY, PTBG), R. Gallen 73a (NY), S. Perlman 21399 (PTBG), S.H. Riesenberg 83 (BISH), F. Sohl 42 (NY, PTBG), M. Takamatsu 734 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 153643)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 153645)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 503322)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia alata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1969) (voucher ID: PTBG 38932)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia alata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 48723)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2006) (voucher ID: PTBG 49058)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 43467)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 153647)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 113-114)
Voucher cited: Smith 7464
Sparingly naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 153624)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 153625)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 113-114)
Vouchers cited: DF 409, Damanu 81, Weiner 140, DA 12107, Weiner 105
Sparingly naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 448544)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia alata
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 448624)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia alata
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 31605)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 8553 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 558138)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 41962)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64977 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 607755)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 161)
Voucher cited: H.M. Smith 144
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 153531)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 153571)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 48)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 161)
Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 231, BRY 24826
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3129 (PAP)
Se naturalise en végétation secondaire ouverte.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 404939)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 310)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4663 (GUAM), Stone 4739 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1919) (voucher ID: BISH 153683)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 153689)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2012) (p. 69)
Voucher cited: J. Parker & R. Parsons BIED142 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 698)
Escape from cultivation.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (pp. 24-25)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H100643 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, R. T. (2000) (p. 5)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H89918 (BISH)
Escape from cultivation.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 28)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 001206-1 (BISH)
On side of road and in pastures.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wysong, Michael/Hughes, Guy/Wood, K. R. (2007) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Wysong 536 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 698)
Escape from cultivation.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 101)
Not seen on this survey and may no longer be present.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 140)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 73)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 21963, MacKee 43594
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 55)
Voucher cited: CHR 169772
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 25)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 10220 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 46)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 429)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia alata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 428583)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 438016)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 428)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia alata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 61)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 219)
Common, widespread.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 113)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 262)
In the settled areas at low and medium altitudes, locally abundant; occasionally planted.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 71)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 153600)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 153603)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 609269)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia alata
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 68)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28635)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 153602)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1945) (voucher ID: BISH 153628)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 153629)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 153630)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 402114)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna alata (L.) Roxb.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Ndeni (Santa Cruz) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 79350)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia alata
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 55)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 75)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 56)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 68)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 37)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 37)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Sparse forests, dry slopes. Guangdong, ?Hainan, S Yunnan".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 134)
As Cassia alata L. In thin forests.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 79)
Naturalised
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 127)
Garden remnant.
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé"
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)

Comments:  Although Senna alata is often weedy, it is also a useful plant.  It is used as a medicine for ringworm and sometimes planted to improve taro patches.

Welsh (1998; p. 161) says that this species has been recently introduced as an ornamental into French Polynesia.

A declared noxious weed in the Western Australia and the Northern Territory (Smith, 2002; p. 37).

Control: 

Physical:  "Mechanical methods of control are usually ineffective because of suckering, although seedling plants may be dug out provided all roots are removed" (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; pp. 455-456).  "Mechanical controls are usually ineffective due to suckering"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Chemical:  "There is little data available about chemical control, but some control of larger infestations may be possible by slashing aerial growth close to the ground and applying picloram + 2,4-D to the cut surfaces immediately.  Triclopyr may also be useful in this way but is not yet registered for this purpose" (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; pp. 455-456).  "Susceptible to triclopyr, picloram and 2,4-D"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).

Additional online information about Senna alata is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Senna alata as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Senna alata may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Australian Biological Resources Study. 2013. Flora of Australia Online. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1967. Voucher specimen #BNM428(Emmons, B. 44).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1968. Voucher specimen #BNM429(Salsedo, Carl A. 115).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 153689 (collector unknown 50).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1919. Voucher specimen #BISH 153683 (Nelson, P. 409).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 153602 (Eames, A.J. 208).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 153573 (Wilder, G.P. 995).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 153603 (Christophersen, E. 668).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 153629 (Templeton Crocker Exedition; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 153630 (Templeton Crocker Expedition; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 153600 (Christophersen, E. 3045).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 404939 (Fosberg, F.R. 12037).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1935. Voucher specimen #BISH 153646 (Takamatsu, M. 276).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 153644 (Takamatsu, M. 479).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 153645 (Takamatsu, M. 734).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1945. Voucher specimen #BISH 153628 (Riley, J.C. 3).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 153640 (Fosberg, F.R. 26124).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 153641 (Pelzer, K.J. 27).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 153643 (Riesenberg, S.H. 83).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 402114 (Giffen 38).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1948. Voucher specimen #BISH 153647 (Wong, C.C.Y. 516).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 153639 (Anderson, D. 755).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 153642 (Anderson, D. 979).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 153624 (Smith, A.C. 7464).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 153625 (Smith, A.C. 7464).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1959. Voucher specimen #BISH 153601 (Wisner, A.W. 97).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 652571 (Evans, M. 1398).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 153531 (Smith, H.M. 144).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 153571 (Smith, H.M. 144).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 428583 (Emmons, B. 44).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 438016 (Emmons, B. 44).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 28635 (Bristol. M.L. 2104).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1971. Voucher specimen #BISH 79350 (Yen, D.E. 19950).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1971. Voucher specimen #BISH 448544 (Weiner, M.A. MW-71-7-105).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 448624 (Weiner, M.A. MW-72-F-140).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 430363 (Whistler, W.A. W 2837).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 503322 (Stemmermann, R.L. 3435).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 593727 (Herbst, D.R. 6822).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 607755 (Fosberg, F.R. 64977).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 609269 (Cox, P.A. 998).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 558138 (Florence, J. 8553).

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Christophersen, Erling. 1935. Flowering plants of Samoa. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128. Honolulu. 221 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. 1975. Vascular flora of the northern Marianas Islands. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 22:1-45.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. The Smithsonian Institution. Atoll Research Bulletin 294:1-70.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. 2nd edition. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 7. Lae, Papua New Guinea. 180 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre. 2011. International Legume Database & Information Service. Online searchable database.

Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. 2002. Invasive/weedy angiosperms in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. In: Invasive species and their management. Micronesica Suppl. 6:61-65.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

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MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

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Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1969. Voucher specimen #PTBG38932(R. Gallen 73).

Oppenheimer, Hank. 2007. New plant records from Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i for 2006. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2006. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 96:17-34.

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Parsons, W. T./Cuthbertson, E. G. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne/Sydney. 692 pp.

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

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Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp.

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 20 JAN 2011.