Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Salvia occidentalis
Sw., Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: blue sage, hap-seed, pegapega, West Indian sage

Maori (Cook Islands): ‘āunga kino, ‘aunga-kino, mauku ‘aunga-kino

Niuean: pupu elo, sealu

Spanish: gonce de gallina, hierba de cangro, moradilla, mozote de gallina, mozotillo, trencilla negra

Tongan: te‘ekosi, te‘ekosi totolo

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual or perennial herbs, often somewhat woody at base; stems decumbent, sometimes ascending, or occasionally subscandent, usually 3-10 dm long, densely soft short-villous, becoming glabrate.  Leaves broadly ovate to rhombic-ovate or occasionally ovate-deltate, 1-6 cm long, 1-3 cm wide, upper surface sparsely scabrid to glabrous, lower surface sparsely puberulent to glabrate, margins crenate-serrate, apex acute to obtuse, base broadly cuneate or occasionally truncate, petioles 0.7-1.5 cm long.  Flowers 2-6 in diffuse racemose inflorescences, bracts ovate, 1.5-2.5 mm long, apex acuminate; calyx 2-3 mm long, only slightly cleft, moderately glandular pubescent, upper lip truncate or obscurely 3-toothed, lower lip 2-toothed; corolla blue, tube ca. 2.5 mm long, upper lip concave, ca. 1.5 mm long; stamens scarcely exserted beyond or included in corolla tube.  One nutlet developing, narrowly obovoid, ca. 1.5 mm long" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 829-831).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in low elevation, dry to wet, disturbed habitats, 1-1,000 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 829-831).  In Niue, "abundant in plantations and waste places over most of the island.  It has a spreading habit and as the plant ages the large freely branching panicles become intertwined, the result often being a densely tangled mass which covers many old plantations"  (Sykes, 1970; p. 105).  "Occasional in disturbed places in Tonga and Niue, collected only once in Samoa" (Whistler, 1988; p. 21). In Tonga, "occasional as a plantation and waste-area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; pp. 234-235). In New Caledonia, "mauvaise herbe répandue et parfois abondante, notamment aux îles Loyauté" (MacKee, 1994; p. 70).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  New World tropics.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4163 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 131)
Voucher cited: Florence 5034
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5034 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 131)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 63745
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5358 (PAP), J. Florence 8670 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 63745 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3002 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 829-831)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 829-831)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 829-831)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 829-831)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 829-831)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 829-831)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 829-831)
Voucher cited: Nuttall s n. (BISH)
New Caledonia
Îles Bélep (Belep Islands)
Île Art introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: MacKee 19432
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: Schmid 633 (NOU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: MacKee 18886
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45861
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Balabio introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: MacKee 19340
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 70)
Vouchers cited: Deplanche 88, Balansa 3609, MacKee 15520, Cherrier in MacKee 35018, MacKee 35157
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: MacKee 5008
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Yande introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: MacKee 22594
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 105)
Vouchers cited: CHR 169930, CHR 169931
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 21)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 37)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 103)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 10011 (BISH)
"Roadside weed".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 10)
Escaping from cultivation.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 21)
Uncommon per Whistler.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3924)
Taxon name on voucher: Salvia occidentalis
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 4072)
Taxon name on voucher: Salvia occidentalis
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 106)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 234-235)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15780
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Nomuka Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 234-235)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15816
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 234-235)
"Occasional throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Soakai 951 (EI)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34467)
Taxon name on voucher: Salvia occidentalis Sw.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 39)
Vouchers cited: Lawrence 60, Ilolahia 121, Soakai 722
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3294)
Taxon name on voucher: Salvia occidentalis
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Soakai 847
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 234-235)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 16053
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 319-320)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Additional information:
Additional online information about Salvia occidentalis is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Salvia occidentalis as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Salvia occidentalis may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2001. Voucher specimen #PTBG34467(Tim Flynn 6899).

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200, Wellington. 321 pp.

Tassin, Jacques. 2005. Jacques Tassin (IAC-CIRAD), personal communication.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of western Polynesia. Technical Paper No. 194, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 69 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1990. Ethnobotany of the Cook Islands: The plants, their Maori names, and their uses. Allertonia 5(4):347-424.

Whistler, W. A. 1992. Flora of Tonga [unpublished checklist]. 107 pp.

Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. 1997. Botanical survey of the Huvalu Forest Conservation Area, Niue. Unpublished technical report. 76 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 126 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.


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This page was created on 6 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 22 OCT 2006.