Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Salvia coccinea
Juss. ex Murray, Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: zhu chun

English: crimson sage, red sage, red salvia, scarlet sage, Texas sage, tropical sage, wild salvia

French: sauge du Texas, toc Maria

Hawaiian: līlīlehua

Mangarevan: miri

Maori (Cook Islands): titānia

Niuean: momili

Tongan: te‘ekosi

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial subligneous herb to 1.5 m high, the branchlets shaggy-hirsute to hispid, usually eglandular; leaves petiolate, the petioles slender, 0.5-2 (-6) cm long, the blades ovate-deltoid, 2.5-4 (-6) x 1.5-3 (-5) cm, truncate to cordate and then abruptly attenuate at base, acute to obtuse at apex, shallowly crenate to serrate at margin, glabrous to scaberulous above, more densely pubescent and often glandular-pubescent beneath especially on nerves; verticils 2-10 (-14)-flowered, arranged in terminal racemes, the bracts ovate-lanceolate, to 1 cm long, often long-ciliate on margin, deciduous; pedicels slender, to 8 mm long; calyx dull purple and green, tubular, erect or deflexed from end of pedicel, 7-8 mm long at anthesis, to 10 mm long in fruit, striate, pubescent, the upper lip entire, obtuse, the lower lip 2-toothed, the teeth triangular to ovate, acute; corolla red, 20-25 (-30) mm long, pubescent, without, the tube straight, exserted, the upper lip short, erect, the lower lip 3-lobed, longer than upper lip, stamens inserted in corolla throat, the filaments pink, to 4 mm long, the connectives many times longer; nutlets narrowly ovoid, about 3 mm long, brown, smooth  (Smith, 1991; pp. 242-243).

Habitat/ecology:  Cultivated and naturalized as a minor weed of waste places in Fiji at elevations from near sea level to about 850 m (Smith, 1991; pp. 242-243).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in low elevation, dry, disturbed habitats, 50-1,000 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 829).  In Niue, "a very common adventive that now grows over most of Niue in waste places and plantations" (Sykes, 1970; p. 105). In Tonga, "rather widespread as a weed in waste areas" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 235). In New Caledonia, "peu cultivé aujourd'hui mais répandu et parfois commun à l'état spontané" (MacKee, 1994; p. 70).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Tropical America but widespread in cultivation and naturalized (Smith, 1991; pp. 242-243).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 207)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 20)
"Originally an escape from gardens, but now a common and very widespread weed". Vouchers cited: J. Pickard 1204 (K, NSW), P.S. Green 2030 (K)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 9)
"Originally an escape from gardens, but now a common and very widespread weed". Vouchers cited: G. Uhe 1158 (K); 1902, J.H. Maiden & J.L. Boorman (K, NSW)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: B. Huguenin s.n. (PAP)
Naturalisée
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 355)
Taxon name on voucher: Salvia coccinea Juss. ex Murray
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 242-243)
Voucher cited: DA 2938
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 242-243)
Voucher cited: DA 16894
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 242-243)
Vouchers cited: Gibbs 761, DA 11418, DA 16450
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: St. John 14915 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Quayle & Curtis 447 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: St. John 14648 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: B. Huguenin s.n. (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 23)
Vouchers cited: Agassiz 123 (GH), Fosberg 11048 (BISH), St. John 14559 (BISH), J. P. Chapin 931 (BISH), Quayle & Curtis 433 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: St. John 14790 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7239 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42247)
Taxon name on voucher: Salvia coccinea Etl.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 131)
Voucher cited: Moore 700
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 829-830)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 40)
Voucher cited: T. Flynn et al. 3176 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 829-830)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 829-830)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 829-830)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 829-830)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: Toutain 3634 (NOU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: Sarasin 509 (Z)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: MacKee 18873
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45853
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Baaba introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: MacKee 23221
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 70)
Vouchers cited: Balansa 2165, Grunow s.n. (W), MacKee 15518
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: Buchholz 1669
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 105)
Vouchers cited: CHR 169927, CHR 169928, CHR 169929
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 21)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 37)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (pp. 103-104)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9640 (BISH), Yuncker 9641 (BISH)
"Naturalized and common as a roadside weed".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 10)
Escaping from cultivation.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
invasive
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 486)
Introduced as an ornamental and ± naturalized on the Gazelle Peninsula. Not found in New Ireland.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 235)
Cited: Crosby.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 319)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 7)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated in China and naturalized in Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 238)
Ornamental.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 319)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 188)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/±envahissant"

Additional information:
Additional online information about Salvia coccinea is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Salvia coccinea as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Salvia coccinea may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Haselwood, E. L./Motter, G. G. 1983. Handbook of Hawaiian Weeds. Second edition, revised and expanded by Robert T. Hirano. University of Hawaii Press. 491 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. 1995. Contributions to the flora of Hawai‘i. III. New additions, range extensions, and rediscoveries of flowering plants. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Miller, Scott, E., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1994. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 41:19-58.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG355(Tim Flynn 7022).

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Pickard, J. 1984. Exotic plants on Lord Howe Island: Distribution in space and time, 1853-1981. J. of Biogeography 11:181-208.

Queensland Herbarium. 2002. Invasive Naturalised Plants in Southeast Queensland, alphabetical by genus. Modified from: Batianoff, George N. and Butler, Don W. (2002). Assessment of Invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Appendix. Plant Protection Quarterly 17, 27-34. 11 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 5. 626 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

St. John, Harold. 1988. Census of the Flora of the Gambier Islands, Polynesia. Pacific Plant Studies 43. Honolulu, Hawaii. 34 pp. [Privately published].

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200, Wellington. 321 pp.

Tassin, Jacques. 2005. Jacques Tassin (IAC-CIRAD), personal communication.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of western Polynesia. Technical Paper No. 194, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 69 pp.

Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. 1997. Botanical survey of the Huvalu Forest Conservation Area, Niue. Unpublished technical report. 76 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1943. The flora of Niue Island. Bishop Mus. Bull. 178. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 126 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 22 OCT 2006.