Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Rumex brownii
Campd., Polygonaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 16 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: brown dock, hooked dock, slender dock, swamp dock

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Erect, glabrous perennial herbs; stems 3-10 dm long.  Leaves primarily basal, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, usually 8-16 cm long, 0.8-1.8 cm wide, glabrous, margins erose-crenulate, apex acute, base cordate to very broadly hastate, petioles usually 2.5-9.5 cm long.  Flowers perfect, 5-16 in clusters, these widely spaced in racemose, sometimes branched inflorescences; outer tepals ca. 1 mm long, the valves ca. 1.2 mm long, enlarging to 2-4 mm long in fruit, the margins with hooked awn-like teeth more than 1 mm long, the apical one slightly longer than others, the faces without tubercles.  Nuts dull brown, ca. 2 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1066-1067).

Habitat/ecology:  Collected at 850 m on East Maui and 1,520 and 1,610 m in dry open areas on the island of Hawai‘i (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1066-1067). In New Zealand, "open, often very dry situations such as cliff tops and coastal headlands, roadsides, waste places, poor pastures, stony riverbeds and on talus deposits" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 982).  In Papua New Guinea (native); "in open, usually somewhat disturbed, localities, at 2000 m to more than 3000 m altitude; creek-banks in grassland, roadsides, gardens"  (Womersley, 1978; p. 248).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Australia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 207)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 20)
"A relatively common weed of gardens, waste places etc.". Vouchers cited: J.C. Game 69/224a (K), P.S. Green 1573 (A, K)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 10)
"A relatively common weed of gardens, waste places etc.". Vouchers cited: P. Ralston 51 (A, K), G. Uhe 1195 (K), G. Uhe 1122 (K), P.S. Green 1457 (A)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1066-1067)
Uncommon per Wagner. Voucher cited: Christ s n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1066-1067)
East Maui. Uncommon per Wagner.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 117)
Vouchers cited: Pancher 433, Cherrier in MacKee 41006
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 130)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 982)
"Open, often very dry situations such as cliff tops and coastal headlands, roadsides, waste places, poor pastures, stony riverbeds and on talus deposits".
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Womersley, John S., ed. (1978) (p. 248)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 181)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 982)

Additional information:
Additional online information about Rumex brownii is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Rumex brownii as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Rumex brownii may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Pickard, J. 1984. Exotic plants on Lord Howe Island: Distribution in space and time, 1853-1981. J. of Biogeography 11:181-208.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

Sykes, W. R. 1977. Kermadec Islands flora: an annotated checklist. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 219, Wellington. 216 pp.

Tassin, Jacques. 2005. Jacques Tassin (IAC-CIRAD), personal communication.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Botany Division, DSIR, Christchurch. 1365 pp.

Womersley, John S., ed. 1978. Handbooks of the flora of Papua New Guinea, vol. 1. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne. 278 pp.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 6 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 17 FEB 2007.